Arduino Language Reference – USE list.


Structure:
Required:    setup( )   loop( )  
Control Structures:    if   if...else   for   switch case   while   do... while   break   continue   return   goto  
Further Syntax:    ; (semicolon)   {} (curly braces)   // (comment single line)   /* */ (comment multi-line)   #define   #include  
Arithmetic Operators:    = (assignment operator)   + (addition)   -- (subtraction)   * (multiplication)   / (division)   % (modulo)  
Comparison Operators:    == (equal to)   != (not equal to)   < (less than)   > (greater than)   <= (less than or equal to)   >= (greater than or equal to)  
Boolean Operators:    && (and)    || (or)    ! (not)  
Pointer Access Operators (subscripts):    * (dereference operator)   & (reference operator)  
Bitwise Operators:    & (bitwise and)   | (bitwise or)   ^ (bitwise xor)   ~(bitwise not)   << (bitshift left)   >> (bitshift right)  
Compound Operators:    ++ (increment)   -- (decrement)   += (compound addition)   -= (compound subtraction)   *= (compound multiplication)   /= (compound division)   &= (compound bitwise and)   |= (compound bitwise or)  
Variables and Constants:
Constants:    HIGH | LOW   INPUT | OUTPUT | INPUT_PULLUP   LED_BuiltIn   true | false   integer constants   floating point constants  
Data Types:    void   boolean   char   unsigned char   byte   int   unsigned int   word   long   unsigned long   short   float   double   string - char array   string - object   array  
Conversion:    char( )   byte( )   int( )   word( )   long( )   float( )  
Variable Scope & Qualifiers:    variable scope   static   volatile   const  
Utilities:    sizeof( )  
Functions:
Digital I/O:    pinMode( )   digitalWrite( )   digitalRead( )  
Analog I/O:    analogReference( )   analogRead( )   analogWrite( ) - PWM   analogReadResolution( ) – Due only   analogWriteResolution( ) – Due only  
Advanced I/O:    tone( )   noTone( )   shiftOut( )   shiftIn( )   pulseIn( )  
Time:    millis( )   micros( )   delay( )   delayMicroseconds( )  
Math:    min( )   max( )   abs( )   constrain( )   map( )   pow( )   sq( )   sqrt( )  
Trigonometry:    sin( )   cos( )   tan( )  
Random Numbers:    randomSeed( )   random( )  
Bits and Bytes:    lowByte( )   highByte( )   bitRead( )   bitWrite( )   bitSet( )   bitClear( )   bit( )  
External Interrupts:    attachInterrupt( )   detachInterrupt( )  
Interrupts:    interrupts( )   noInterrupts( )  
Communication:    serial   stream  
USB (Leonardo and Due only):   keyboard   mouse  

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Arduino Language Reference – ALPHABETIC list.

abs( )   + (addition)   analogRead( )   analogReference( )   analogWrite( ) - PWM   analogReadResolution( ) – Due   analogWriteResolution( ) – Due   && (and)    array   = (assignment operator)   attachInterrupt( )   bit( )   bitClear( )   bitRead( )   bitSet( )   << (bitshift left)   >> (bitshift right)   <& (bitwise and)   ~(bitwise not)   | (bitwise or)   ^ (bitwise xor)   bitWrite( )   boolean   break   byte   byte( )   char   char( )   /* */ (comment multi-line)   // (comment single line)   += (compound addition)   &= (compound bitwise and)   |= (compound bitwise or)   /= (compound division)   *= (compound multiplication)   -= (compound subtraction)   const   constrain( )   continue   cos( )   {} (curly braces)   -- (decrement)   #define   delay( )   delayMicroseconds( )   * (dereference operator)   detachInterrupt( )   digitalRead( )   digitalWrite( )   / (division)   do... while   double   == (equal to)   float   float( )   floating point constants   for   goto   > (greater than)   >= (greater than or equal to)   HIGH | LOW   highByte( )   if   if...else   #include   ++ (increment)   INPUT | OUTPUT | INPUT_PULLUP   int   int( )   integer constants   interrupts( )   keyboard   LED_BuiltIn   < (less than)   <= (less than or equal to)   long   long( )   loop( )   lowByte( )   map( )   max( )   micros( )   millis( )   min( )   % (modulo)   mouse   * (multiplication)   noInterrupts( )   ! (not)   != (not equal to)   noTone( )   || (or)    pinMode( )   pow( )   pulseIn( )   random( )   randomSeed( )   & (reference operator)   return   ; (semicolon)   serial   setup( )   shiftIn( )   shiftOut( )   short   sin( )   sizeof( )   sq( )   sqrt( )   static   stream   string - char array   string - object   -- (subtraction)   switch case   tan( )   tone( )   true | false   unsigned char   unsigned int   unsigned long   variable scope   void   volatile   while   word   word( )

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setup( )
The setup( ) function is called when a sketch starts. Use it to initialize variables, pin modes, start using libraries, etc. The setup function will only run once, after each powerup or reset of the Arduino board.

int buttonPin = 3;
void setup( )
{
  Serial.begin(9600);
  pinMode(buttonPin, INPUT);
}
void loop( )
{
// ...
}
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loop( )
After creating a setup( ) function, which initializes and sets the initial values, the loop( ) function does precisely what its name suggests, and loops consecutively, allowing your program to change and respond. Use it to actively control the Arduino board.

const int buttonPin = 3;
// setup initializes serial and the button pin
void setup( )
{
  Serial.begin(9600);
  pinMode(buttonPin, INPUT);
}
// loop checks the button pin each time,
// and will send serial if it is pressed
void loop( )
{
  if (digitalRead(buttonPin) == HIGH)
    Serial.write('H');
  else
    Serial.write('L');
  delay(1000);
}
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if (conditional) and ==, !=, <, > (comparison operators)
David if, which is used in conjunction with a comparison operator, tests whether a certain condition has been reached, such as an input being above a certain number. The format for an if test is:

if (someVariable > 50)
{
// do something here
}
The program tests to see if someVariable is greater than 50. If it is, the program takes a particular action. Put another way, if the statement in parentheses is true, the statements inside the brackets are run. If not, the program skips over the code. The brackets may be omitted after an if statement. If this is done, the next line (defined by the semicolon) becomes the only conditional statement.
if (x > 120) digitalWrite(LEDpin, HIGH);

if (x > 120)
  digitalWrite(LEDpin, HIGH);

if (x > 120){ digitalWrite(LEDpin, HIGH); }

if (x > 120)
{
  digitalWrite(LEDpin1, HIGH);
  digitalWrite(LEDpin2, HIGH);
} // all are correct
The statements being evaluated inside the parentheses require the use of one or more operators:

Comparison Operators:
x == y (x is equal to y)
x != y (x is not equal to y)
x < y (x is less than y)
x > y (x is greater than y)
x <= y (x is less than or equal to y)
x >= y (x is greater than or equal to y)
Warning:
Beware of accidentally using the single equal sign (e.g. if (x = 10) ). The single equal sign is the assignment operator, and sets x to 10 (puts the value 10 into the variable x). Instead use the double equal sign (e.g. if (x == 10) ), which is the comparison operator, and tests whether x is equal to 10 or not. The latter statement is only true if x equals 10, but the former statement will always be true.
This is because C evaluates the statement if (x=10) as follows: 10 is assigned to x (remember that the single equal sign is the assignment operator), so x now contains 10. Then the 'if' conditional evaluates 10, which always evaluates to TRUE, since any non-zero number evaluates to TRUE. Consequently, if (x = 10) will always evaluate to TRUE, which is not the desired result when using an 'if' statement. Additionally, the variable x will be set to 10, which is also not a desired action.
if can also be part of a branching control structure using the if...else construction.

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if / else( )
if/else allows greater control over the flow of code than the basic if statement, by allowing multiple tests to be grouped together. For example, an analog input could be tested and one action taken if the input was less than 500, and another action taken if the input was 500 or greater. The code would look like this:

if (pinFiveInput < 500)
{
// action A
}
else
{
// action B
}
else can proceed another if test, so that multiple, mutually exclusive tests can be run at the same time.
Each test will proceed to the next one until a true test is encountered. When a true test is found, its associated block of code is run, and the program then skips to the line following the entire if/else construction. If no test proves to be true, the default else block is executed, if one is present, and sets the default behavior. Note that an else if block may be used with or without a terminating else block and vice versa. An unlimited number of such else if branches is allowed.
if (pinFiveInput < 500)
{
// do Thing A
}
else if (pinFiveInput >= 1000)
{
// do Thing B
}
else
{
// do Thing C
}
Another way to express branching, mutually exclusive tests, is with the switch case statement.
Also see: switch case

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for statements
The for statement is used to repeat a block of statements enclosed in curly braces. An increment counter is usually used to increment and terminate the loop. The for statement is useful for any repetitive operation, and is often used in combination with arrays to operate on collections of data/pins.
There are three parts to the for loop header:

for (initialization; condition; increment)
{
//statement(s);
}

FOR graphic

The initialization happens first and exactly once. Each time through the loop, the condition is tested; if it's true, the statement block, and the increment is executed, then the condition is tested again. When the condition becomes false, the loop ends.
// Dim an LED using a PWM pin
int PWMpin = 10; // LED in series with 470 ohm resistor on pin 10
void setup( )
{
// no setup needed
}
void loop( )
{
  for (int i=0; i <= 255; i++)
  {
    analogWrite(PWMpin, i);
    delay(10);
  }
}
Coding Tips:
The C for loop is much more flexible than for loops found in some other computer languages, including BASIC. Any or all of the three header elements may be omitted, although the semicolons are required. Also the statements for initialization, condition, and increment can be any valid C statements with unrelated variables, and use any C datatypes including floats. These types of unusual for statements may provide solutions to some rare programming problems.
For example, using a multiplication in the increment line will generate a logarithmic progression:
for(int x = 2; x < 100; x = x * 1.5)
{
  println(x);
}
Generates: 2,3,4,6,9,13,19,28,42,63,94
Another example, fade an LED up and down with one for loop:
void loop( )
{
int x = 1;
for (int i = 0; i > -1; i = i + x)
  {
    analogWrite(PWMpin, i);
    if (i == 255) x = -1; // switch direction at peak
    delay(10);
  }
}
Also see: while

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switch / case statements
Like if statements, switch...case controls the flow of programs by allowing programmers to specify different code that should be executed in various conditions. In particular, a switch statement compares the value of a variable to the values specified in case statements. When a case statement is found whose value matches that of the variable, the code in that case statement is run.
The break keyword exits the switch statement, and is typically used at the end of each case. Without a break statement, the switch statement will continue executing the following expressions ("falling-through") until a break, or the end of the switch statement is reached.

switch (var)
{
case 1:
//do something when var equals 1
  break;
case 2:
//do something when var equals 2
  break;
default:
// if nothing else matches, do the default
// default is optional
}
switch (var)
{
case label:
// statements
  break;
case label:
// statements
  break;
default:
// statements
}
Parameters:
  var: the variable whose value to compare to the various cases.
  label: a value to compare the variable to.
Also see: if...else

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while loops
while loops will loop continuously, and infinitely, until the expression inside the parenthesis, ( ) becomes false. Something must change the tested variable, or the while loop will never exit. This could be in your code, such as an incremented variable, or an external condition, such as testing a sensor.

while(expression)
{
// statement(s)
}
Parameters: expression - a (boolean) C statement that evaluates to true or false Example
var = 0;
while(var < 200)
{
// do something repetitive 200 times
  var++;
}
Also see: While Loop Tutorial

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do - while
The do loop works in the same manner as the while loop, with the exception that the condition is tested at the end of the loop, so the do loop will always run at least once.

do
{
// statement block
} while (test condition);

do
{
  delay(50); // wait for sensors to stabilize
  x = readSensors( ); // check the sensors
} while (x < 100);
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break
break is used to exit from a do, for, or while loop, bypassing the normal loop condition. It is also used to exit from a switch statement.

for (x = 0; x < 255; x ++)
{
  digitalWrite(PWMpin, x);
  sens = analogRead(sensorPin);
  if (sens > threshold)
  { // bail out on sensor detect
    x = 0;
    break;
  }
delay(50);
}
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continue
The continue statement skips the rest of the current iteration of a loop (do, for, or while). It continues by checking the conditional expression of the loop, and proceeding with any subsequent iterations.

for (x = 0; x < 255; x ++)
{
if (x > 40 && x < 120)
  { // create jump in values
    continue;
  }
digitalWrite(PWMpin, x);
delay(50);
}
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return
Terminate a function and return a value from a function to the calling function, if desired.
return; or return value; // both forms are valid
Parameters
  value: any variable or constant type
A function to compare a sensor input to a threshold

int checkSensor( )
{
if (analogRead(0) > 400)
  {
  return 1;
else
  {
  return 0;
  }
}
The return keyword is handy to test a section of code without having to "comment out" large sections of possibly buggy code.
void loop( )
{
// brilliant code idea to test here
return;
// the rest of a dysfunctional sketch here
// this code will never be executed
}
Also see: comments

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goto
Transfers program flow to a labeled point in the program.
Syntax:
  label:
  goto label; // sends program flow to the label
Tip:
The use of goto is discouraged in C programming, and some authors of C programming books claim that the goto statement is never necessary, but used judiciously, it can simplify certain programs. The reason that many programmers frown upon the use of goto is that with the unrestrained use of goto statements, it is easy to create a program with undefined program flow, which can never be debugged.
With that said, there are instances where a goto statement can come in handy, and simplify coding. One of these situations is to break out of deeply nested for loops, or if logic blocks, on a certain condition.

for(byte r = 0; r < 255; r++)
{
  for(byte g = 255; g > -1; g--)
  {
    for(byte b = 0; b < 255; b++)
    {
      if (analogRead(0) > 250){ goto bailout;
    }
// more statements ...
    }
  }
}
bailout:
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; semicolon
Used to end a statement.

int a = 13;
Tip:
Forgetting to end a line in a semicolon will result in a compiler error. The error text may be obvious, and refer to a missing semicolon, or it may not. If an impenetrable or seemingly illogical compiler error comes up, one of the first things to check is a missing semicolon, in the immediate vicinity, preceding the line at which the compiler complained.

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{ } Curly Braces
Curly braces (also referred to as just "braces" or as "curly brackets") are a major part of the C programming language. They are used in several different constructs, outlined below, and this can sometimes be confusing for beginners.
An opening curly brace "{" must always be followed by a closing curly brace "}". This is a condition that is often referred to as the braces being balanced. The Arduino IDE (integrated development environment) includes a convenient feature to check the balance of curly braces. Just select a brace, or even click the insertion point immediately following a brace, and its logical companion will be highlighted. At present this feature is slightly buggy as the IDE will often find (incorrectly) a brace in text that has been "commented out." Beginning programmers, and programmers coming to C from the BASIC language often find using braces confusing or daunting. After all, the same curly braces replace the RETURN statement in a subroutine (function), the ENDIF statement in a conditional and the NEXT statement in a FOR loop. Because the use of the curly brace is so varied, it is good programming practice to type the closing brace immediately after typing the opening brace when inserting a construct which requires curly braces. Then insert some carriage returns between your braces and begin inserting statements. Your braces, and your attitude, will never become unbalanced. Unbalanced braces can often lead to cryptic, impenetrable compiler errors that can sometimes be hard to track down in a large program. Because of their varied usages, braces are also incredibly important to the syntax of a program and moving a brace one or two lines will often dramatically affect the meaning of a program.
The main uses of curly braces are in:
  Functions:
    void myfunction(datatype argument)
    {
      statements(s)
    }
  Loops:
     while (boolean expression)
     {
          statement(s)
     }

    do
    {
      statement(s)
    } while (boolean expression);

    for (initialisation; termination condition; incrementing expressions)
    {
      statement(s)
    }
  Conditional statements:
     if (boolean expression)
     {
       statement(s)
    }
    else if (boolean expression)
    {
       statement(s)
     }
     else
{
          statement(s)
     }

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// (single line comment) and /* */ (multi-line comment)
Comments are lines in the program that are used to inform yourself or others about the way the program works. They are ignored by the compiler, and not exported to the processor, so they don't take up any space on the Atmega chip. Comments only purpose are to help you understand (or remember) how your program works or to inform others how your program works. There are two different ways of marking a line as a comment:

x = 5; // This is a single line comment. Anything after the slashes is a comment
// to the end of the line

/* this is multiline comment - use it to comment out whole blocks of code
  if (gwb == 0)
  { // single line comment is OK inside a multiline comment
  x = 3;   /* but not another multiline comment - this is invalid */
  }
// don't forget the "closing" comment - they have to be balanced!
*/
Tip:
When experimenting with code, "commenting out" parts of your program is a convenient way to remove lines that may be buggy. This leaves the lines in the code, but turns them into comments, so the compiler just ignores them. This can be especially useful when trying to locate a problem, or when a program refuses to compile and the compiler error is cryptic or unhelpful.

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# define
#define is a useful C component that allows the programmer to give a name to a constant value before the program is compiled. Defined constants in Arduino don't take up any program memory space on the chip. The compiler will replace references to these constants with the defined value at compile time. This can have some unwanted side effects though, if for example, a constant name that had been #defined is included in some other constant or variable name. In that case the text would be replaced by the #defined number (or text). In general, the const keyword is preferred for defining constants and should be used instead of #define.
Arduino defines have the same syntax as C defines:
  #define constantName value
Note that the # is necessary.
  #define ledPin 3
// The compiler will replace any mention of ledPin with the value 3 at compile time.

Tip:
There is no semicolon after the #define statement. If you include one, the compiler will throw cryptic errors further down the page.
  #define ledPin 3;    // this is an error
Similarly, including an equal sign after the #define statement will also generate a cryptic compiler error further down the page.
  #define ledPin = 3   // this is also an error
Also see: const & Constants

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#include
#include is used to include outside libraries in your sketch. This gives the programmer access to a large group of standard C libraries (groups of pre-made functions), and also libraries written especially for Arduino. The main reference page for AVR C libraries (AVR is a reference to the Atmel chips on which the Arduino is based) is here. Note that #include, similar to #define, has no semicolon terminator, and the compiler will yield cryptic error messages if you add one.
This example includes a library that is used to put data into the program space flash instead of ram. This saves the ram space for dynamic memory needs and makes large lookup tables more practical.

  #include

  prog_uint16_t myConstants[] PROGMEM = {0, 21140, 702 , 9128, 0, 25764, 8456,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,29810,8968,29762,29762,4500};
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= assignment operator (single equal sign)
Stores the value to the right of the equal sign in the variable to the left of the equal sign. The single equal sign in the C programming language is called the assignment operator. It has a different meaning than in algebra class where it indicated an equation or equality. The assignment operator tells the microcontroller to evaluate whatever value or expression is on the right side of the equal sign, and store it in the variable to the left of the equal sign.

int sensVal;    // declare an integer variable named sensVal
sensVal = analogRead(0);    // store the (digitized) input voltage at analog pin 0 in SensVal
Programming Tips:
The variable on the left side of the assignment operator ( = sign ) needs to be able to hold the value stored in it. If it is not large enough to hold a value, the value stored in the variable will be incorrect. Don't confuse the assignment operator [ = ] (single equal sign) with the comparison operator [ == ] (double equal signs), which evaluates whether two expressions are equal. Also see: if (comparison operators), char, int, long

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Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, & Division
These operators return the sum, difference, product, or quotient (respectively) of the two operands. The operation is conducted using the data type of the operands, so, for example, 9 / 4 gives 2 since 9 and 4 are ints. This also means that the operation can overflow if the result is larger than that which can be stored in the data type (e.g. adding 1 to an int with the value 32,767 gives -32,768). If the operands are of different types, the "larger" type is used for the calculation.
If one of the numbers (operands) are of the type float or of type double, floating point math will be used for the calculation.

value1: any variable or constant
value2: any variable or constant
result = value1 + value2;
result = value1 - value2;
result = value1 * value2;
result = value1 / value2;
y = y + 3;
x = x - 7;
i = j * 6;
r = r / 5;
Programming Tips:
• Integer constants default to int, so some constant calculations may overflow (e.g. 60 * 1000 will yield a negative result).
• Choose variable sizes that are large enough to hold the largest results from your calculations.
• Know at what point your variable will "roll over" and also what happens in the other direction e.g. (0 - 1) OR (0 - - 32768)
• For math that requires fractions, use float variables, but be aware of their drawbacks: large size, slow computation speeds.
• Use the cast operator e.g. (int)myFloat to convert one variable type to another on the fly.

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% (modulo)
Calculates the remainder when one integer is divided by another. It is useful for keeping a variable within a particular range (e.g. the size of an array).

dividend: the number to be divided
divisor: the number to divide by
result: the remainder

result = dividend % divisor

x = 7 % 5; // x now contains 2
x = 9 % 5; // x now contains 4
x = 5 % 5; // x now contains 0
x = 4 % 5; // x now contains 4

/* update one value in an array each time through a loop */
int values[10];
int i = 0;
void setup( ) { }
void loop( )
{
  values[i] = analogRead(0);
  i = (i + 1) % 10;    // modulo operator rolls over variable
}
Tip: The modulo operator does not work on floats.
Also see: division

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if (conditional) and ==, !=, <, >, <=, >= (comparison operators)
if, which is used in conjunction with a comparison operator, tests whether a certain condition has been reached, such as an input being above a certain number. The statements being evaluated inside the parentheses require the use of one or more operators:

x == y (x is equal to y)
x != y (x is not equal to y)
x < y (x is less than y)
x > y (x is greater than y)
x <= y (x is less than or equal to y)
x >= y (x is greater than or equal to y)

if (someVariable > 50)
{
// do something here
}
The program tests to see if someVariable is greater than 50. If it is, the program takes a particular action. Put another way, if the statement in parentheses is true, the statements inside the brackets are run. If not, the program skips over the code.
The brackets may be omitted after an if statement. If this is done, the next line (defined by the semicolon) becomes the only conditional statement.
if (x > 120) digitalWrite(LEDpin, HIGH);

if (x > 120)
  digitalWrite(LEDpin, HIGH);

if (x > 120){ digitalWrite(LEDpin, HIGH);   }

if (x > 120){
  digitalWrite(LEDpin1, HIGH);
  digitalWrite(LEDpin2, HIGH);
}      // all are correct
Warning:
Beware of accidentally using the single equal sign (e.g. if (x = 10) ). The single equal sign is the assignment operator, and sets x to 10 (puts the value 10 into the variable x). Instead use the double equal sign (e.g. if (x == 10) ), which is the comparison operator, and tests whether x is equal to 10 or not. The latter statement is only true if x equals 10, but the former statement will always be true. This is because C evaluates the statement if (x=10) as follows: 10 is assigned to x (remember that the single equal sign is the assignment operator), so x now contains 10. Then the 'if' conditional evaluates 10, which always evaluates to TRUE, since any non-zero number evaluates to TRUE. Consequently, if (x = 10) will always evaluate to TRUE, which is not the desired result when using an 'if' statement. Additionally, the variable x will be set to 10, which is also not a desired action. if can also be part of a branching control structure using the if...else] construction.

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&&, ||, ! (Boolean Operators)
These can be used inside the condition of an if statement.

&& (logical and)
True only if both operands are true, e.g.
  if (digitalRead(2) == HIGH && digitalRead(3) == HIGH) { // read two switches
      // ...
  }

is true only if both inputs are high.

|| (logical or)
True if either operand is true, e.g.
  if (x > 0 || y > 0) {
   // ...
  }

is true if either x or y is greater than 0.

! (not)
True if the operand is false, e.g.
  if (!x) {
   // ...
  }

is true if x is false (i.e. if x equals 0).
Warning:
Make sure you don't mistake the boolean AND operator, && (double ampersand) for the bitwise AND operator & (single ampersand). They are entirely different beasts. Similarly, do not confuse the boolean || (double pipe) operator with the bitwise OR operator | (single pipe). The bitwise not ~ (tilde) looks much different than the boolean not ! (exclamation point or "bang" as the programmers say) but you still have to be sure which one you want where.
  if (a >= 10 && a <= 20){ }   // true if a is between 10 and 20
Also see: & (bitwise AND), | (bitwise OR), ~ (bitwise NOT), if

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& * (Pointer Access Operators, i.e. subscripts)
The pointer operators, & (reference) and * (dereference), are one of the more complicated subjects for beginners in learning C, and it is possible to write the vast majority of Arduino sketches without ever encountering pointers. However, for manipulating certain data structures, the use of pointers can simplify the code and knowledge of manipulating pointers is handy to have in one's toolkit.

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& (bitwise AND), | (bitwise OR), ^ (bitwise XOR)
The bitwise operators perform their calculations at the bit level of variables. They help solve a wide range of common programming problems. Much of the material below is from an excellent tutorial on bitwise math wihch may be found here. Below are descriptions and syntax for all of the operators.

& (bitwise AND)
The bitwise AND operator in C++ is a single ampersand, &, used between two other integer expressions. Bitwise AND operates on each bit position of the surrounding expressions independently, according to this rule: if both input bits are 1, the resulting output is 1, otherwise the output is 0. Another way of expressing this is:
  0 0 1 1  operand1
  0 1 0 1  operand2
  ----------
  0 0 0 1  (operand1 & operand2) = returned result

In Arduino, the type int is a 16-bit value, so using & between two int expressions causes 16 simultaneous AND operations to occur. In a code fragment like:
  int a = 92; // in binary: 0000000001011100
  int b = 101; // in binary: 0000000001100101
  int c = a & b; // result:   0000000001000100, or 68 in decimal.

Each of the 16 bits in a and b are processed by using the bitwise AND, and all 16 resulting bits are stored in c, resulting in the value 01000100 in binary, which is 68 in decimal. One of the most common uses of bitwise AND is to select a particular bit (or bits) from an integer value, often called masking. See below for an example.

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| (bitwise OR)
The bitwise OR operator in C++ is the vertical bar symbol, |. Like the & operator, | operates independently each bit in its two surrounding integer expressions, but what it does is different (of course). The bitwise OR of two bits is 1 if either or both of the input bits is 1, otherwise it is 0. In other words:
  0 0 1 1  operand1
  0 1 0 1  operand2
  ----------
  0 1 1 1 (operand1 | operand2) - returned result

Here is an example of the bitwise OR used in a snippet of C++ code:
  int a = 92; // in binary: 0000000001011100
  int b = 101; // in binary: 0000000001100101
  int c = a | b; // result:0000000001111101, or 125 in decimal.


Example Program:
A common job for the bitwise AND and OR operators is what programmers call Read-Modify-Write on a port. On microcontrollers, a port is an 8 bit number that represents something about the condition of the pins. Writing to a port controls all of the pins at once.
PORTD is a built-in constant that refers to the output states of digital pins 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7. If there is 1 in a bit position, then that pin is HIGH. (The pins already need to be set to outputs with the pinMode( ) command.) So if we write PORTD = B00110001; we have made pins 2,3 & 7 HIGH. One slight hitch here is that we may also have changeed the state of Pins 0 & 1, which are used by the Arduino for serial communications so we may have interfered with serial communication.
Our algorithm for the program is:
• Get PORTD and clear out only the bits corresponding to the pins we wish to control (with bitwise AND).
• Combine the modified PORTD value with the new value for the pins under control (with biwise OR).

int i; // counter variable
int j;
void setup( )
{
DDRD = DDRD | B11111100; // set direction bits for pins 2 to 7, leave 0 and 1 untouched (xx | 00 == xx)
// same as pinMode(pin, OUTPUT) for pins 2 to 7
Serial.begin(9600);
}
void loop( )
{
for (i=0; i<64; i++)
  {
  PORTD = PORTD & B00000011; // clear out bits 2 - 7, leave pins 0 and 1 untouched (xx & 11 == xx)
  j = (i << 2); // shift variable up to pins 2 - 7 - to avoid pins 0 and 1
  PORTD = PORTD | j; // combine the port information with the new information for LED pins
  Serial.println(PORTD, BIN); // debug to show masking
  delay(100);
  }
}
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^ (bitwise XOR)
There is a somewhat unusual operator in C++ called bitwise EXCLUSIVE OR, also known as bitwise XOR. (In English this is usually pronounced "eks-or".) The bitwise XOR operator is written using the caret symbol ^. This operator is very similar to the bitwise OR operator |, only it evaluates to 0 for a given bit position when both of the input bits for that position are 1:
  0 0 1 1  operand1
  0 1 0 1  operand2
  ----------
  0 1 1 0(operand1 ^ operand2) = returned result

Another way to look at bitwise XOR is that each bit in the result is a 1 if the input bits are different, or 0 if they are the same. Here is a simple code example:
  int x = 12; // binary: 1100
  int y = 10; // binary: 1010
  int z = x ^ y; // binary: 0110, or decimal 6


The ^ operator is often used to toggle (i.e. change from 0 to 1, or 1 to 0) some of the bits in an integer expression. In a bitwise OR operation if there is a 1 in the mask bit, that bit is inverted; if there is a 0, the bit is not inverted and stays the same. Below is a program to blink digital pin 5.

// Blink_Pin_5
// demo for Exclusive OR
void setup( )
{
DDRD = DDRD | B00100000;    // set digital pin five as OUTPUT
Serial.begin(9600);
}
void loop( )
{
PORTD = PORTD ^ B00100000; // invert bit 5 (digital pin 5), leave others untouched
delay(100);
}
Also see: &&(Boolean AND), ||(Boolean OR), ~(Bitwise NOT)

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~ (bitwise NOT)
The bitwise NOT operator in C++ is the tilde character ~. Unlike & and |, the bitwise NOT operator is applied to a single operand to its right. Bitwise NOT changes each bit to its opposite: 0 becomes 1, and 1 becomes 0. For example:
  0 1  operand1
  ----------
  1 0  ~ operand1
  int a = 103; // binary: 0000000001100111
  int b = ~a; // binary: 1111111110011000 = -104

You might be surprised to see a negative number like -104 as the result of this operation. This is because the highest bit in an int variable is the so-called sign bit. If the highest bit is 1, the number is interpreted as negative. This encoding of positive and negative numbers is referred to as two's complement. For more information, see the Wikipedia article on two's complement. As an aside, it is interesting to note that for any integer x, ~x is the same as -x-1. At times, the sign bit in a signed integer expression can cause some unwanted surprises.

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<< (bitshift left), >> (bitshift right)
There are two bit shift operators in C++: the left shift operator << and the right shift operator >>. These operators cause the bits in the left operand to be shifted left or right by the number of positions specified by the right operand. More on bitwise math may be found here.
  variable = (byte, int, long) number_of_bits integer <= 32
  variable << number_of_bits
  variable >> number_of_bits
  int a = 5; // binary: 0000000000000101
  int b = a << 3; // binary: 0000000000101000, or 40 in decimal
  int c = b >> 3; // binary: 0000000000000101, or back to 5 like we started with

When you shift a value x by y bits (x << y), the leftmost y bits in x are lost, literally shifted out of existence:
  int a = 5; // binary: 0000000000000101
  int b = a << 14; // binary: 0100000000000000 - the first 1 in 101 was discarded

If you are certain that none of the ones in a value are being shifted into oblivion, a simple way to think of the left-shift operator is that it multiplies the left operand by 2 raised to the right operand power. For example, to generate powers of 2, the following expressions can be employed:
  1 << 0 == 1
  1 << 1 == 2
  1 << 2 == 4
  1 << 3 == 8
  ...
  1 << 8 == 256
  1 << 9 == 512
  1 << 10 == 1024
  ...

When you shift x right by y bits (x >> y), and the highest bit in x is a 1, the behavior depends on the exact data type of x. If x is of type int, the highest bit is the sign bit, determining whether x is negative or not, as we have discussed above. In that case, the sign bit is copied into lower bits, for esoteric historical reasons:
  int x = -16; // binary: 1111111111110000
  int y = x >> 3; // binary: 1111111111111110

This behavior, called sign extension, is often not the behavior you want. Instead, you may wish zeros to be shifted in from the left. It turns out that the right shift rules are different for unsigned int expressions, so you can use a typecast to suppress ones being copied from the left:
  int x = -16; // binary: 1111111111110000
  int y = (unsigned int)x >> 3; // binary: 0001111111111110

If you are careful to avoid sign extension, you can use the right-shift operator >> as a way to divide by powers of 2. For example:
  int x = 1000;
  int y = x >> 3; // integer division of 1000 by 8, causing y = 125.


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++ (increment) , -- (decrement)
Increment or decrement a variable.

x is an integer or long (possibly unsigned).
x++; // increment x by one and returns the old value of x
++x; // increment x by one and returns the new value of x
x-- ; // decrement x by one and returns the old value of x
--x ; // decrement x by one and returns the new value of x

x = 2; y = ++x; // x now contains 3, y contains 3
y = x--; // x contains 2 again, y still contains 3
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+= (compound addition) , -= (compound subtraction) , *= (compound multiplication) , /= (compound division)
Perform a mathematical operation on a variable with another constant or variable. The four operators are just a convenient shorthand for the expanded syntax, listed below. The better coding practice is not to use these, but rather to use the clearer expanded syntax, i.e. use x = x + y instead of x += y.

X is any variable type
Y is any variable type or constant
x += y; // equivalent to the expression x = x + y;
x -= y; // equivalent to the expression x = x - y;
x *= y; // equivalent to the expression x = x * y;
x /= y; // equivalent to the expression x = x / y;

x = 2;
x += 4; // x now contains 6
x -= 3; // x now contains 3
x *= 10; // x now contains 30
x /= 2; // x now contains 15
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&= (compound bitwise AND)
The compound bitwise AND operator (&=) is often used with a variable and a constant to force particular bits in a variable to the LOW state (to 0). This is often referred to in programming guides as "clearing" or "resetting" bits.
  X is a char, int or long variable
  Y is an integer constant or char, int, or long
  x &= y; // equivalent to x = x & y;


First, a review of the Bitwise AND (&) operator:
  0 0 1 1  operand1
  0 1 0 1  operand2
  ----------
  0 0 0 1   (operand1 & operand2) gives this result.

Bits that are "bitwise ANDed" with 0 are cleared to 0 so, if myByte is a byte variable: myByte & B00000000 = 0;
Bits that are "bitwise ANDed" with 1 are unchanged so: myByte & B11111111 = myByte;
Note that because we are dealing with bits in a bitwise operator, it is convenient to use the binary formatter with constants. The numbers are still the same value in other representations - they are just not as easy to understand. Also, B00000000 is shown for clarity, but zero in any number format is zero (hmmm something philosophical there?)
Consequently, to clear (set to zero) bits 0 & 1 of a variable, while leaving the rest of the variable unchanged, use the compound bitwise AND operator (&=) with the constant B11111100:
  1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 variable
  1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 mask
  ----------------------
  1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0
  ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ - -
  unchanged cleared

Here is the same representation with the variable's bits replaced with the symbol x
  x x x x x x 1 0 variable
  1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 mask
  ----------------------
  x x x x x x 0 0
  ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ - -
  unchanged cleared

  myByte = 10101010;
  myByte &= B1111100 == B10101000;

Also see: |= (compound bitwise OR) , & (bitwise AND) , | (bitwise OR)

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|= (compound bitwise OR)
The compound bitwise OR operator (|=) is often used with a variable and a constant to "set" (set to 1) particular bits in a variable.
  x is a char, int or long variable
  y is an integer constant or char, int, or long
  x |= y; // equivalent to x = x | y;


First, a review of the Bitwise OR (|) operator
  0 0 1 1 operand1
  0 1 0 1 operand2
  ----------
  0 1 1 1 (operand1 | operand2) gives this result

Bits that are "bitwise ORed" with 0 are unchanged, so if myByte is a byte variable: myByte | B00000000 = myByte;
Bits that are "bitwise ORed" with 1 are set to 1 so: myByte | B11111111 = B11111111;
Consequently, to set bits 0 & 1 of a variable, while leaving the rest of the variable unchanged, use the compound bitwise OR operator (|=) with the constant B00000011
  1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 variable
  0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 mask
  ----------------------
  1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1
  ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ - -
  unchanged cleared

Here is the same representation with the variables bits replaced with the symbol x
  x x x x x x x x variable
  0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 mask
  ----------------------
  x x x x x x 1 1
  ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ - -
  unchanged cleared

  myByte = B10101010;
  myByte |= B00000011 == B10101011;

Also see: &= (compound bitwise AND) , & (bitwise AND) , | (bitwise OR)

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HIGH , LOW , INPUT , OUTPUT , INPUT_PULLUP , LED_BUILTIN (pin level)
Pin levels and pin configurations are always capitalized. Digital pin levels are either HIGH or LOW. (Analog pin level voltages can vary. See Analog I/O.) Pin configuration is INPUT, INPUT_PULLUP or OUTPUT.

HIGH pin level:
The meaning of HIGH (in reference to a pin) is somewhat different depending on whether a pin is set to an INPUT or OUTPUT.
When a pin is configured as an INPUT with pinMode, and read with digitalRead, the microcontroller will report HIGH if a voltage of 3 volts or more is present at the pin. A pin may also be configured as an INPUT with pinMode, and subsequently made HIGH with digitalWrite, this will set the internal 20K pullup resistors, which will steer the input pin to a HIGH reading unless it is pulled LOW by external circuitry. This is how INPUT_PULLUP works as well.
When a pin is configured to OUTPUT with pinMode, and set to HIGH with digitalWrite, the pin is at 3.3 volts (Due) or 5 volts (Uno). In this state it can source current, e.g. light an LED that is connected through a series resistor to ground, or to another pin configured as an OUTPUT and set to LOW.

LOW pin level:
The meaning of LOW also has a different meaning depending on whether a pin is set to INPUT or OUTPUT.
When a pin is configured as an INPUT with pinMode, and read with digitalRead, the microcontroller will report LOW if a voltage of 2 volts or less is present at the pin.
When a pin is configured to OUTPUT with pinMode( ), and set to LOW with digitalWrite, the pin is at 0 volts. In this state it can sink current, e.g. light an LED that is connected through a series resistor to, +3.3 volts (Due) or +5 volts (Uno), or to another pin configured as an OUTPUT and set to HIGH.

INPUT pin configuration:
Arduino (Atmega) pins configured as INPUT with pinMode( ) are said to be in a high-impedance state. Pins configured as INPUT make extremely small demands on the circuit that they are sampling, equivalent to a series resistor of 100 Megohms in front of the pin. This makes them useful for reading a sensor, but not powering an LED. If you have your pin configured as an INPUT, you will want the pin to have a reference to ground, often accomplished with a pull-down resistor (a resistor going to ground) as described in the Digital Read Serial tutorial.

OUTPUT pin configuration:
Pins configured as OUTPUT with pinMode( ) are said to be in a low-impedance state. This means that they can provide a substantial amount of current to other circuits. Atmega pins can source (provide positive current) or sink (provide negative current) up to 40 mA (milliamps) of current to other devices/circuits. This makes them useful for powering LED's but useless for reading sensors. Pins configured as outputs can also be damaged or destroyed if short circuited to either ground or 3.3 volt (Due) or (Uno) 5 volt power rails. The amount of current provided by an Atmega pin is also not enough to power most relays or motors, and some interface circuitry will be required.

INPUT_PULLUP pin configuration:
The Atmega (David what about DUE)??? chip on the Arduino has internal pull-up resistors (resistors that connect to power internally) that you can access. If you prefer to use these instead of external pull-down resistors, you can use the INPUT_PULLUP argument in pinMode( ). This effectively inverts the behavior, where HIGH means the sensor is off, and LOW means the sensor is on. See the Input Pullup Serial tutorial for an example of this in use.
LED_BUILTIN
Most Arduino boards have a pin connected to an on-board LED in series with a resistor. LED_BUILTIN is a drop-in replacement for manually declaring this pin as a variable. Most boards have this LED connected to digital pin 13.

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true | false constants
Constants are predefined variables in the Arduino language. They are used to make the programs easier to read. Note that the true and false constants are typed in lowercase unlike HIGH, LOW, INPUT, & OUTPUT. There are two constants used to represent truth and falsity in the Arduino language: true and false.
  false
     false is the easier of the two to define. false is defined as 0 (zero).
  true
     true is often said to be defined as 1, which is correct, but true has a wider definition. Any integer which is non-zero is true, in a Boolean sense. So -1, 2 and -200 are all defined as true, too, in a Boolean sense.

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Integer Constants
Integer constants are numbers used directly in a sketch, like 123. By default, these numbers are treated as int's but you can change this with the U and L modifiers (see below).
Normally, integer constants are treated as base 10 (decimal) integers, but special notation (formatters) may be used to enter numbers in other bases.

Decimal is base ten: This is the common-sense math with which you are acquainted. Constants without other prefixes are assumed to be in decimal format. An example would be 123.

Binary is base two: Binary values are indicated by the prefix "B". Only characters 0 and 1 are valid. An example would be B101 which is the same as decimal 5 which can be calculated by ((1 * 2^2) + (0 * 2^1) + 1). The binary formatter only works on bytes (8 bits) between 0 (B0) and 255 (B11111111). If it is convenient to input an int (16 bits) in binary form, you can do it a two-step procedure such as: myInt = (B11001100 * 256) + B10101010; in which B11001100 is the high byte.

Octal is base eight: Octal values are indicated by the prefix "0". Only characters 0 through 7 are valid. An example would be 0102 which is the same as 66 decimal which can be calculated by ((1 * 8^2) + (0 * 8^1) + 2). Warning: It is possible to generate a hard-to-find bug by (unintentionally) including a leading zero before a constant and having the compiler unintentionally interpret your constant as octal.

Hexadecimal (or hex) is base sixteen: Hex values are indicated by the prefix "0x". Valid characters are 0 through 9 and letters A through F; A has the value 10, B is 11, up to F, which is 15. Note that A-F may be in upper or lower case (a-f). An example would be 0x10a which is the same as decimal 266 which can be calculated by ((1 * 16^2) + (0 * 16^1) + 10).

U & L formatters:
By default, an integer constant is treated as an int with the attendant limitations in values. To specify an integer constant with another data type, follow it with:
  a 'u' or 'U' to force the constant into an unsigned data format. Example: 33u
  a 'l' or 'L' to force the constant into a long data format. Example: 100000L
  a 'ul' or 'UL' to force the constant into an unsigned long constant. Example: 32767ul

Also see: constants , #define , byte , int , unsigned int , long , unsigned long

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floating point constants
Similar to integer constants, floating point constants are used to make code more readable. Floating point constants are swapped at compile time for the value to which the expression evaluates. An example would be n = .005;
Floating point constants can also be expressed in a variety of scientific notation. 'E' and 'e' are both accepted as valid exponent indicators. Examples include 10.0 which evaluates to 10, 2.34E5 which evaluates to 2.34 * 10^5 which further evaluates to 234000, and 67e-12 which evaluates to 67.0 * 10^-12 which further evaluates to .000000000067

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void
The void keyword is used only in function declarations. It indicates that the function is expected to return no information to the function from which it was called.

// actions are performed in the functions "setup" and "loop"
// but no information is reported to the larger program
void setup( )
{
   // ...
}
void loop( )
{
   // ...
}
Also see: function declaration

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boolean
A boolean holds one of two values, true or false. (Each boolean variable occupies one byte of memory.)

int LEDpin = 5;    // LED on pin 5
int switchPin = 13;    // momentary switch on 13, other side connected to ground
boolean running = false;
void setup( )
{
   pinMode(LEDpin, OUTPUT);
   pinMode(switchPin, INPUT);
   digitalWrite(switchPin, HIGH); // turn on pullup resistor
}
void loop( )
{
   if (digitalRead(switchPin) == LOW)
   { // switch is pressed - pullup keeps pin high normally
   delay(100);    // delay to debounce switch
   running = !running;    // toggle running variable
   digitalWrite(LEDpin, running)    // indicate via LED
   }
}
Also see: constants , boolean operators , Variable Declaration

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char
A data type that takes up 1 byte of memory that stores a character value. Character literals are written in single quotes, like this: 'A' (for multiple characters - strings - use double quotes: "ABC"). Characters are stored as numbers, however. You can see the specific encoding in the ASCII chart. This means that it is possible to do arithmetic on characters, in which the ASCII value of the character is used (e.g. 'A' + 1 has the value 66, since the ASCII value of the capital letter A is 65). See Serial.println reference for more on how characters are translated to numbers. The char datatype is a signed type, meaning that it encodes numbers from -128 to 127. For an unsigned, one-byte (8 bit) data type, use the byte data type.

char myChar = 'A';
char myChar = 65;    // both are equivalent
Also see: byte , int , array , Serial.println

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unsigned char
An unsigned data type that occupies 1 byte of memory. Same as the byte datatype. The unsigned char datatype encodes numbers from 0 to 255. For consistency of Arduino programming style, the byte data type is to be preferred.

unsigned char myChar = 240;
Also see: byte , int , array , Serial.println

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byte
A byte stores an 8-bit unsigned number, from 0 to 255.   byte b = B10010;    // "B" is the binary formatter (B10010 = 18 decimal) Also see: word , byte( ) , Variable Declaration

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int
Integers are your primary data-type for number storage. On the Arduino Uno (and other ATMega based boards) an int stores a 16-bit (2-byte) value. This yields a range of -32,768 to 32,767 (minimum value of -2^15 and a maximum value of (2^15) - 1). On the Arduino Due, an int stores a 32-bit (4-byte) value. This yields a range of -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647 (minimum value of -2^31 and a maximum value of (2^31) - 1).
int's store negative numbers with a technique called 2's complement math. The highest bit, sometimes referred to as the "sign" bit, flags the number as a negative number. The rest of the bits are inverted and 1 is added. The Arduino takes care of dealing with negative numbers for you, so that arithmetic operations work transparently in the expected manner. There can be an unexpected complication in dealing with the bitshift right operator (>>) however.

int ledPin = 13;
int var = val;
var - the variable name.
val - the value assigned to the variable.
Coding Tip: When variables are made to exceed their maximum capacity they "roll over" back to their minimum capacity, note that this happens in both directions. Example for a 16-bit int:
int x;
x = -32768;
x = x - 1; // x now contains 32,767 - rolls over in neg. direction
x = 32767;
x = x + 1; // x now contains -32,768 - rolls over
Also see: byte , unsigned int , long , unsigned long , Integer Constants , Variable Declaration

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unsigned int
On the Uno and other ATMEGA based boards, unsigned ints (unsigned integers) are the same as ints in that they store a 2 byte value. Instead of storing negative numbers however they only store positive values, yielding a useful range of 0 to 65,535 (2^16) - 1). The Due stores a 4 byte (32-bit) value, ranging from 0 to 4,294,967,295 (2^32 - 1). The difference between unsigned ints and (signed) ints, lies in the way the highest bit, sometimes refered to as the "sign" bit, is interpreted. In the Arduino int type (which is signed), if the high bit is a "1", the number is interpreted as a negative number, and the other 15 bits are interpreted with 2's complement math.

unsigned int ledPin = 13;
unsigned int var = val;
var - the variable name.
val - the value assigned to the variable.
Coding Tip: When variables are made to exceed their maximum capacity they "roll over" back to their minimum capacitiy, note that this happens in both directions
unsigned int x
x = 0;
x = x - 1; // x now contains 65535 - rolls over in neg direction
x = x + 1; // x now contains 0 - rolls over
Also see: byte , int , long , unsigned long , Variable Declaration

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word
A word stores a 16-bit unsigned number, from 0 to 65535. Same as an unsigned int.
  word w = 10000;
Also see: byte , word()

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long
Long variables are extended size variables for number storage, and store 32 bits (4 bytes), from -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647. If doing math with integers, at least one of the numbers must be followed by an L, forcing it to be a long. See the Integer Constants page for details.

long speedOfLight = 186000L;    // see the Integer Constants page for explanation of the 'L'
long var = val;
var - the variable name. val - the value assigned to the variable.
Also see: byte , int , unsigned int , unsigned long , Integer Constants , Variable Declaration

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unsigned long
Unsigned long variables are extended size variables for number storage, and store 32 bits (4 bytes). Unlike standard longs unsigned longs won't store negative numbers, making their range from 0 to 4,294,967,295 (2^32 - 1).

unsigned long time;
void setup(){
Serial.begin(9600);
}
void loop(){
Serial.print("Time: ");
time = millis();
   //prints time since program started
Serial.println(time);
   // wait a second so as not to send massive amounts of data
delay(1000);
}
unsigned long var = val;
var - the variable name.
val - the value assigned to the variable.
Also see: byte , int , unsigned int , long , Variable Declaration

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short
A short is a 16-bit data-type. On all Arduinos (ATMega and ARM based) a short stores a 16-bit (2-byte) value. This yields a range of -32,768 to 32,767 (minimum value of -2^15 and a maximum value of (2^15) - 1).

short ledPin = 13;
short var = val;
var - the variable name.
val - the value assigned to the variable.
Also see: byte , int , unsigned int , long , unsigned long , Integer Constants , Variable Declaration

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float
Float is a datatype for floating-point numbers, a number that has a decimal point. Floating-point numbers are often used to approximate analog and continuous values because they have greater resolution than integers. Floating-point numbers can be as large as 3.4028235E+38 and as low as -3.4028235E+38. They are stored as 32 bits (4 bytes) of information. Floats have only 6-7 decimal digits of precision. That means the total number of digits, not the number to the right of the decimal point. Unlike other platforms, where you can get more precision by using a double (e.g. up to 15 digits), on the Arduino, double is the same size as float. Floating point numbers are not exact, and may yield strange results when compared. For example 6.0 / 3.0 may not equal 2.0. You should instead check that the absolute value of the difference between the numbers is less than some small number. Floating point math is also much slower than integer math in performing calculations, so should be avoided if, for example, a loop has to run at top speed for a critical timing function. Programmers often go to some lengths to convert floating point calculations to integer math to increase speed. If doing math with floats, you need to add a decimal point, otherwise it will be treated as an int. See the Floating point constants page for details.

float myfloat;
float sensorCalbrate = 1.117;
float var = val;
var - the variable name.
val - the value assigned to the variable.

int x;
int y;
float z;
x = 1;
y = x / 2; // y now contains 0, ints can't hold fractions
z = (float)x / 2.0; // z now contains .5 (you have to use 2.0, not 2)
Also see: int , double , Variable Declaration

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double
Double precision floating point number. On the Uno and other ATMEGA based boards, this occupies 4 bytes. That is, the double implementation is exactly the same as the float, with no gain in precision. On the Arduino Due, doubles have 8-byte (64 bit) precision. Tip: Users who borrow code from other sources that includes double variables may wish to examine the code to see if the implied precision is different from that actually achieved on ATMEGA based Arduinos.
Also see: float

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string (char array)
Text strings can be represented in two ways. you can use the String data type, which is part of the core as of version 0019, or you can make a string out of an array of type char and null-terminate it. This page described the latter method. For more details on the String object, which gives you more functionality at the cost of more memory, see the String object page.
All of the following are valid declarations for strings.

char Str1[15];
char Str2[8] = {'a', 'r', 'd', 'u', 'i', 'n', 'o'};
char Str3[8] = {'a', 'r', 'd', 'u', 'i', 'n', 'o', '\0'};
char Str4[ ] = "arduino";
char Str5[8] = "arduino";
char Str6[15] = "arduino";
Possibilities for declaring strings:
• Declare an array of chars without initializing it as in Str1
• Declare an array of chars (with one extra char) and the compiler will add the required null character, as in Str2
• Explicitly add the null character, Str3
• Initialize with a string constant in quotation marks; the compiler will size the array to fit the string constant and a terminating null character, Str4
• Initialize the array with an explicit size and string constant, Str5
• Initialize the array, leaving extra space for a larger string, Str6
Null termination:
Generally, strings are terminated with a null character (ASCII code 0). This allows functions (like Serial.print( )) to tell where the end of a string is. Otherwise, they would continue reading subsequent bytes of memory that aren't actually part of the string. This means that your string needs to have space for one more character than the text you want it to contain. That is why Str2 and Str5 need to be eight characters, even though "arduino" is only seven - the last position is automatically filled with a null character. Str4 will be automatically sized to eight characters, one for the extra null. In Str3, we've explicitly included the null character (written '\0') ourselves. Note that it's possible to have a string without a final null character (e.g. if you had specified the length of Str2 as seven instead of eight). This will break most functions that use strings, so you shouldn't do it intentionally. If you notice something behaving strangely (operating on characters not in the string), however, this could be the problem.
Single quotes or double quotes?
Strings are always defined inside double quotes ("Abc") and characters are always defined inside single quotes('A').
Wrapping long strings:
You can wrap long strings like this:
char myString[] = "This is the first line"
" this is the second line"
" etcetera";
Arrays of strings:
It is often convenient, when working with large amounts of text, such as a project with an LCD display, to setup an array of strings. Because strings themselves are arrays, this is in actually an example of a two-dimensional array. In the code below, the asterisk after the datatype char "char*" indicates that this is an array of "pointers". All array names are actually pointers, so this is required to make an array of arrays. Pointers are one of the more esoteric parts of C for beginners to understand, but it isn't necessary to understand pointers in detail to use them effectively here.
char* myStrings[]={"This is string 1", "This is string 2", "This is string 3",
"This is string 4", "This is string 5","This is string 6"};
void setup( ){
Serial.begin(9600);
}
void loop( ){
for (int i = 0; i < 6; i++){
   Serial.println(myStrings[i]);
   delay(500);
   }
}
Also see: array , PROGMEM , Variable Declaration

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String (object)
The String class, part of the core as of version 0019, allows you to use and manipulate strings of text in more complex ways than character arrays do. You can concatenate Strings, append to them, search for and replace substrings, and more. It takes more memory than a simple character array, but it is also more useful. For reference, character arrays are referred to as strings with a small s, and instances of the String class are referred to as Strings with a capital S. Note that constant strings, specified in "double quotes" are treated as char arrays, not instances of the String class.
Examples:

• StringConstructors
• StringAdditionOperator
• StringIndexOf
• StringAppendOperator
• StringLengthTrim
• StringCaseChanges
• StringReplace
• StringCharacters
• StringStartsWithEndsWith
• StringComparisonOperators
• StringSubstring
Also see: string: character arrays , Variable Declaration

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array
An array is a collection of variables that are accessed with an index number. Arrays in the C programming language, on which Arduino is based, can be complicated, but using simple arrays is relatively straightforward. Creating (Declaring) an Array: All of the methods below are valid ways to create (declare) an array.

int myInts[6];
int myPins[] = {2, 4, 8, 3, 6};
int mySensVals[6] = {2, 4, -8, 3, 2};
char message[6] = "hello";
You can declare an array without initializing it as in myInts.
In myPins we declare an array without explicitly choosing a size. The compiler counts the elements and creates an array of the appropriate size.
Finally you can both initialize and size your array, as in mySensVals. Note that when declaring an array of type char, one more element than your initialization is required, to hold the required null character.
Accessing an Array:
Arrays are zero indexed, that is, referring to the array initialization above, the first element of the array is at index 0, hence
  mySensVals[0] == 2, mySensVals[1] == 4, and so forth.
It also means that in an array with ten elements, index nine is the last element. Hence:
  int myArray[10]={9,3,2,4,3,2,7,8,9,11};
   // myArray[9] contains 11
   // myArray[10] is invalid and contains random information (other memory address)

For this reason you should be careful in accessing arrays. Accessing past the end of an array (using an index number greater than your declared array size - 1) is reading from memory that is in use for other purposes. Reading from these locations is probably not going to do much except yield invalid data. Writing to random memory locations is definitely a bad idea and can often lead to unhappy results such as crashes or program malfunction. This can also be a difficult bug to track down. Unlike BASIC or JAVA, the C compiler does no checking to see if array access is within legal bounds of the array size that you have declared.
To assign a value to an array:   mySensVals[0] = 10;
To retrieve a value from an array:   x = mySensVals[4];
Arrays and FOR Loops:
Arrays are often manipulated inside for loops, where the loop counter is used as the index for each array element. For example, to print the elements of an array over the serial port, you could do something like this:
int i; for (i = 0; i < 5; i = i + 1) {    Serial.println(myPins[i]); }
Example:
For a complete program that demonstrates the use of arrays, see the Knight Rider example from the Tutorials.
Also see: Variable Declaration , PROGMEM

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char( )
Converts a value to the char data type.

char(x) // Returns char
x: a value of any type
Also see: char

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byte( )
Converts a value to the byte data type.

byte(x) // Returns byte
x: a value of any type
Also see: byte

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int( )
Converts a value to the int data type.

int(x) // Returns int
x: a value of any type
Also see: int

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word( )
Convert a value to the word data type or create a word from two bytes.

word(x) // Returns word
word(h, l)

x: a value of any type
h: the high-order (leftmost) byte of the word
l: the low-order (rightmost) byte of the word
Also see: word

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long( )
Converts a value to the long data type.

long(x) // Returns long
x: a value of any type
Also see: long

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float( )
Converts a value to the float data type.

float(x) returns float
x: a value of any type
Notes: See the reference for float for details about the precision and limitations of floating point numbers on Arduino.
Also see: float

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Variable Scope
Variables in the C programming language, which Arduino uses, have a property called scope. This is in contrast to early versions of languages such as BASIC where every variable is a global variable. A global variable is one that can be seen by every function in a program. Local variables are only visible to the function in which they are declared. In the Arduino environment, any variable declared outside of a function (e.g. setup( ), loop( ), etc. ), is a global variable. When programs start to get larger and more complex, local variables are a useful way to insure that only one function has access to its own variables. This prevents programming errors when one function inadvertently modifies variables used by another function. It is also sometimes handy to declare and initialize a variable inside a for loop. This creates a variable that can only be accessed from inside the for-loop brackets.

int gPWMval; // any function will see this variable
void setup( )
{
   // ...
}
void loop( )
{
int i; // "i" is only "visible" inside of "loop"
float f; // "f" is only "visible" inside of "loop"
         // ...
for (int j = 0; j <100; j++){
   // variable j can only be accessed inside the for-loop brackets
}
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static
The static keyword is used to create variables that are visible to only one function. However unlike local variables that get created and destroyed every time a function is called, static variables persist beyond the function call, preserving their data between function calls.
Variables declared as static will only be created and initialized the first time a function is called.
Example: RandomWalk: Paul Badger 2007: RandomWalk wanders up and down randomly between two endpoints. The maximum move in one loop is governed by the parameter "stepsize". A static variable is moved up and down a random amount. This technique is also known as "pink noise" and "drunken walk".

#define randomWalkLowRange -20
#define randomWalkHighRange 20
int stepsize;
int thisTime;
int total;
void setup( ){
   Serial.begin(9600);
}
void loop( ){ // test randomWalk function
stepsize = 5;
thisTime = randomWalk(stepsize);
Serial.println(thisTime);
delay(10);
}
int randomWalk(int moveSize){
static int place; // variable to store value in random walk - declared static so that it stores
        // values in between function calls, but no other functions can change its value place = place + (random(-moveSize, moveSize + 1));
if (place < randomWalkLowRange){ // check lower and upper limits
   place = place + (randomWalkLowRange - place); // reflect number back in positive direction
}
else if(place > randomWalkHighRange){
   place = place - (place - randomWalkHighRange); // reflect number back in negative direction
}
return place;
}
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volatile
volatile is a keyword known as a variable qualifier, it is usually used before the datatype of a variable, to modify the way in which the compiler and subsequent program treats the variable. Declaring a variable volatile is a directive to the compiler. The compiler is software which translates your C/C++ code into the machine code, which are the real instructions for the Atmega chip in the Arduino. Specifically, it directs the compiler to load the variable from RAM and not from a storage register, which is a temporary memory location where program variables are stored and manipulated. Under certain conditions, the value for a variable stored in registers can be inaccurate. A variable should be declared volatile whenever its value can be changed by something beyond the control of the code section in which it appears, such as a concurrently executing thread. In the Arduino, the only place that this is likely to occur is in sections of code associated with interrupts, called an interrupt service routine.

// toggles LED when interrupt pin changes state
int pin = 13;
volatile int state = LOW;
void setup( )
{
pinMode(pin, OUTPUT);
attachInterrupt(0, blink, CHANGE);
}
void loop( )
{
digitalWrite(pin, state);
}
void blink( )
{
state = !state;
}
Also see: AttachInterrupt

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const
The const keyword stands for constant. It is a variable qualifier that modifies the behavior of the variable, making a variable "read-only". This means that the variable can be used just as any other variable of its type, but its value cannot be changed. You will get a compiler error if you try to assign a value to a const variable. Constants defined with the const keyword obey the rules of variable scoping that govern other variables. This, and the pitfalls of using#define, makes the const keyword a superior method for defining constants and is preferred over using #define.

const float pi = 3.14;
float x;
         // ....
x = pi * 2; // it's fine to use const's in math
pi = 7; // illegal - you can't write to (modify) a constant
const or #define:
You can use either const or #define for creating numeric or string constants. For arrays, you will need to use const. In general const is preferred over #define for defining constants.
Also see: #define , volatile

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sizeof
The sizeof operator returns the number of bytes in a variable type, or the number of bytes occupied by an array. The sizeof operator is useful for dealing with arrays (such as strings) where it is convenient to be able to change the size of the array without breaking other parts of the program.
This program prints out a text string one character at a time. Try changing the text phrase.

sizeof(variable)
variable: any variable type or array (e.g. int, float, byte)
char myStr[] = "this is a test";
int i;
void setup( ){
   Serial.begin(9600);
}
void loop( ) {
for (i = 0; i < sizeof(myStr) - 1; i++){
   Serial.print(i, DEC);
   Serial.print(" = ");
   Serial.write(myStr[i]);
   Serial.println( );
}
delay(5000); // slow down the program
}
// Note that sizeof returns the total number of bytes. So for larger variable types such as ints, the for loop would look something like this. Note also that a properly formatted string ends with the NULL symbol, which has ASCII value 0.
for (i = 0; i < (sizeof(myInts)/sizeof(int)) - 1; i++) {
   // do something with myInts[i]
}
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pinMode( )
Configures the specified pin to behave either as an input or an output. See the description of digital pins for details on the functionality of the pins. As of Arduino 1.0.1, it is possible to enable the internal pullup resistors with the mode INPUT_PULLUP. Additionally, the INPUT mode explicitly disables the internal pullups.

pinMode(pin, mode) pin: the number of the pin whose mode you wish to set mode: INPUT, OUTPUT, or INPUT_PULLUP. (see the digital pins page for a more complete description of the functionality.)
int ledPin = 13; // LED connected to digital pin 13
void setup( )
{
pinMode(ledPin, OUTPUT); // sets the digital pin as output
}
void loop( )
{
digitalWrite(ledPin, HIGH); // sets the LED on
delay(1000); // waits for a second
digitalWrite(ledPin, LOW); // sets the LED off
delay(1000); // waits for a second
}
Note: The analog input pins can be used as digital pins, referred to as A0, A1, etc.
Also see: constants , digitalWrite( ) , digitalRead( ) , Tutorial: Description of the pins on an Arduino board

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digitalWrite( )
Write a HIGH or a LOW value to a digital pin.
If the pin has been configured as an OUTPUT with pinMode( ), its voltage will be set to the corresponding value: 5V (or 3.3V on 3.3V boards) for HIGH, 0V (ground) for LOW. If the pin is configured as an INPUT, digitalWrite( ) will enable (HIGH) or disable (LOW) the internal pullup on the input pin. It is recommended to set the pinMode( ) to INPUT_PULLUP to enable the internal pull-up resistor. See the digital pins tutorial for more information.
NOTE: If you do not set the pinMode( ) to OUTPUT, and connect an LED to a pin, when calling digitalWrite(HIGH), the LED may appear dim. Without explicitly setting pinMode( ), digitalWrite( ) will have enabled the internal pull-up resistor, which acts like a large current-limiting resistor.

digitalWrite(pin, value)
pin: the pin number
value: HIGH or LOW

int ledPin = 13; // LED connected to digital pin 13
void setup( )
{
pinMode(ledPin, OUTPUT); // sets the digital pin as output
}
void loop( )
{
digitalWrite(ledPin, HIGH); // sets the LED on
delay(1000); // waits for a second
digitalWrite(ledPin, LOW); // sets the LED off
delay(1000); // waits for a second
}
Sets pin 13 to HIGH, makes a one-second-long delay, and sets the pin back to LOW.
Note: The analog input pins can be used as digital pins, referred to as A0, A1, etc.
Also see: pinMode( ) , digitalRead( ) , Tutorial: Digital Pins

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digitalRead( )
Reads the value from a specified digital pin, either HIGH or LOW.

digitalRead(pin)
pin: the number of the digital pin you want to read (int)
Returns: HIGH or LOW
Sets pin 13 to the same value as pin 7, declared as an input.
int ledPin = 13; // LED connected to digital pin 13
int inPin = 7; // pushbutton connected to digital pin 7
int val = 0; // variable to store the read value

void setup( ) {
pinMode(ledPin, OUTPUT); // sets the digital pin 13 as output
pinMode(inPin, INPUT); // sets the digital pin 7 as input
}
void loop( )
{
val = digitalRead(inPin); // read the input pin
digitalWrite(ledPin, val); // sets the LED to the button's value
}
Note: If the pin isn't connected to anything, digitalRead( ) can return either HIGH or LOW (and this can change randomly).
The analog input pins can be used as digital pins, referred to as A0, A1, etc.

Also see: pinMode( ) , digitalWrite( ) , Tutorial: Digital Pins

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analogReference(type)
Configures the reference voltage used for analog input (i.e. the value used as the top of the input range). The options are:

• DEFAULT: the default analog reference of 5 volts (on 5V Arduino boards) or 3.3 volts (on 3.3V Arduino boards)
• INTERNAL: an built-in reference, equal to 1.1 volts on the ATmega168 or ATmega328 and 2.56 volts on the ATmega8 (not available on the Arduino Mega)
• INTERNAL1V1: a built-in 1.1V reference (Arduino Mega only)
• INTERNAL2V56: a built-in 2.56V reference (Arduino Mega only)
• EXTERNAL: the voltage applied to the AREF pin (0 to 3.3V or 5V only) is used as the reference.

type: which type of reference to use (DEFAULT, INTERNAL, INTERNAL1V1, INTERNAL2V56, or EXTERNAL).
Returns: None.
Note: After changing the analog reference, the first few readings from analogRead( ) may not be accurate.
Warning: Don't use anything less than 0V or more than 5V for external reference voltage on the AREF pin! If you're using an external reference on the AREF pin, you must set the analog reference to EXTERNAL before calling analogRead( ). Otherwise, you will short together the active reference voltage (internally generated) and the AREF pin, possibly damaging the microcontroller on your Arduino board.
Alternatively, you can connect the external reference voltage to the AREF pin through a 5K resistor, allowing you to switch between external and internal reference voltages. Note that the resistor will alter the voltage that gets used as the reference because there is an internal 32K resistor on the AREF pin. The two act as a voltage divider, so, for example, 2.5V applied through the resistor will yield 2.5 * 32 / (32 + 5) = ~2.2V at the AREF pin.
Also see: Description of the analog input pins , analogRead( )

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analogRead( )
Reads the value from the specified analog pin. The Arduino board contains a 6 channel (8 channels on the Mini and Nano, 16 on the Mega), 10-bit analog to digital converter. This means that it will map input voltages between 0 and 5 volts into integer values between 0 and 1023. This yields a resolution between readings of: 5 volts / 1024 units or, .0049 volts (4.9 mV) per unit. The input range and resolution can be changed using analogReference( ). It takes about 100 microseconds (0.0001 s) to read an analog input, so the maximum reading rate is about 10,000 times a second.

analogRead(pin)
pin: the number of the analog input pin to read from (0 to 5 on most boards, 0 to 7 on the Mini and Nano, 0 to 15 on the Mega)
Returns: int (0 to 1023)
Note: If the analog input pin is not connected to anything, the value returned by analogRead( ) will fluctuate based on a number of factors (e.g. the values of the other analog inputs, how close your hand is to the board, etc.).
int analogPin = 3; // potentiometer wiper (middle terminal) connected to analog pin 3
// outside leads to ground and +5V
int val = 0; // variable to store the value read
void setup( )
{
Serial.begin(9600); // setup serial
}
void loop( )
{
val = analogRead(analogPin); // read the input pin
Serial.println(val); // debug value
}
Also see: analogReference( ) , analogReadResolution( ) , Tutorial: Analog Input Pins

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analogWrite( ) (PWM)
Writes an analog value (PWM wave) to a pin. Can be used to light a LED at varying brightnesses or drive a motor at various speeds. After a call to analogWrite( ), the pin will generate a steady square wave of the specified duty cycle until the next call to analogWrite( ) (or a call to digitalRead( ) or digitalWrite( ) on the same pin). The frequency of the PWM signal on most pins is approximately 490 Hz. On the Uno and similar boards, pins 5 and 6 have a frequency of approximately 980 Hz. Pins 3 and 11 on the Leonardo also run at 980 Hz. On most Arduino boards (those with the ATmega168 or ATmega328), this function works on pins 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, and 11. On the Arduino Mega, it works on pins 2 - 13 and 44 - 46. Older Arduino boards with an ATmega8 only support analogWrite( ) on pins 9, 10, and 11. The Arduino Due supports analogWrite( ) on pins 2 through 13, plus pins DAC0 and DAC1. Unlike the PWM pins, DAC0 and DAC1 are Digital to Analog converters, and act as true analog outputs.
You do not need to call pinMode( ) to set the pin as an output before calling analogWrite( ).
The analogWrite function has nothing to do with the analog pins or the analogRead function.

analogWrite(pin, value)
pin: the pin to write to.
value: the duty cycle: between 0 (always off) and 255 (always on).
Returns nothing .
Notes and Known Issues: The PWM outputs generated on pins 5 and 6 will have higher-than-expected duty cycles. This is because of interactions with the millis( ) and delay( ) functions, which share the same internal timer used to generate those PWM outputs. This will be noticed mostly on low duty-cycle settings (e.g 0 - 10) and may result in a value of 0 not fully turning off the output on pins 5 and 6. Sets the output to the LED proportional to the value read from the potentiometer.
int ledPin = 9; // LED connected to digital pin 9
int analogPin = 3; // potentiometer connected to analog pin 3
int val = 0; // variable to store the read value
void setup( )
{
pinMode(ledPin, OUTPUT); // sets the pin as output
}
void loop( )
{
val = analogRead(analogPin); // read the input pin
analogWrite(ledPin, val / 4); // analogRead values go from 0 to 1023 --- analogWrite values from 0 to 255
}
Also see: analogRead( ) , analogWriteResolution( ) , Tutorial: PWM

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analogReadResolution( )
analogReadResolution( ) is an extension of the Analog API for the Arduino Due.
Sets the size (in bits) of the value returned by analogRead( ). It defaults to 10 bits (returns values between 0-1023) for backward compatibility with AVR based boards. The Due has 12-bit ADC capabilities that can be accessed by changing the resolution to 12. This will return values from analogRead( ) between 0 and 4095.

analogReadResolution(bits)
bits: determines the resolution (in bits) of the value returned by analogRead( ) function. You can set this 1 and 32. You can set resolutions higher than 12 but values returned by analogRead( ) will suffer approximation. See the note below for details.
Returns: None.
Note: If you set the analogReadResolution( ) value to a value higher than your board's capabilities, the Arduino will only report back at its highest resolution padding the extra bits with zeros. For example: using the Due with analogReadResolution(16) will give you an approximated 16-bit number with the first 12 bits containing the real ADC reading and the last 4 bits padded with zeros. If you set the analogReadResolution( ) value to a value lower than your board's capabilities, the extra least significant bits read from the ADC will be discarded. Using a 16 bit resolution (or any resolution higher than actual hardware capabilities) allows you to write sketches that automatically handle devices with a higher resolution ADC when these become available on future boards without changing a line of code.
void setup( ) {
// open a serial connection
Serial.begin(9600);
}
void loop( ) {
// read the input on A0 at default resolution (10 bits)
// and send it out the serial connection
analogReadResolution(10);
Serial.print("ADC 10-bit (default) : ");
Serial.print(analogRead(A0));
// change the resolution to 12 bits and read A0
analogReadResolution(12);
Serial.print(", 12-bit : ");
Serial.print(analogRead(A0));
// change the resolution to 16 bits and read A0
analogReadResolution(16);
Serial.print(", 16-bit : ");
Serial.print(analogRead(A0));
// change the resolution to 8 bits and read A0
analogReadResolution(8);
Serial.print(", 8-bit : ");
Serial.println(analogRead(A0));
// a little delay to not hog serial monitor
delay(100);
}
Also see: Description of the analog input pins , analogRead( )

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analogWriteResolution( )
analogWriteResolution( ) is an extension of the Analog API for the Arduino Due.
analogWriteResolution( ) sets the resolution of the analogWrite( ) function. It defaults to 8 bits (values between 0-255) for backward compatibility with AVR based boards.
The Due has the following hardare capabilities:
  • 12 pins which default to 8-bit PWM, like the AVR-based boards. These can be changed to 12-bit resolution.
  • 2 pins with 12-bit DAC (Digital-to-Analog Converter)

By setting the write resolution to 12, you can use analogWrite( ) with values between 0 and 4095 to exploit the full DAC resolution or to set the PWM signal without rolling over.

analogWriteResolution(bits)
bits: determines the resolution (in bits) of the values used in the analogWrite( ) function. The value can range from 1 to 32. If you choose a resolution higher or lower than your board's hardware capabilities, the value used in analogWrite( ) will be either truncated if it's too high or padded with zeros if it's too low. See the note below for details.
Returns: None.
Note: If you set the analogWriteResolution( ) value to a value higher than your board's capabilities, the Arduino will discard the extra bits. For example: using the Due with analogWriteResolution(16) on a 12-bit DAC pin, only the first 12 bits of the values passed to analogWrite( ) will be used and the last 4 bits will be discarded. If you set the analogWriteResolution( ) value to a value lower than your board's capabilities, the missing bits will be padded with zeros to fill the hardware required size. For example: using the Due with analogWriteResolution(8) on a 12-bit DAC pin, the Arduino will add 4 zero bits to the 8-bit value used in analogWrite( ) to obtain the 12 bits required.
void setup( ){
// open a serial connection
Serial.begin(9600);
// make our digital pin an output
pinMode(11, OUTPUT);
pinMode(12, OUTPUT);
pinMode(13, OUTPUT);
}
void loop( ){
// read the input on A0 and map it to a PWM pin
// with an attached LED
int sensorVal = analogRead(A0);
Serial.print("Analog Read) : ");
Serial.print(sensorVal);
// the default PWM resolution
analogWriteResolution(8);
analogWrite(11, map(sensorVal, 0, 1023, 0 ,255));
Serial.print(" , 8-bit PWM value : ");
Serial.print(map(sensorVal, 0, 1023, 0 ,255));
// change the PWM resolution to 12 bits
// the full 12 bit resolution is only supported
// on the Due
analogWriteResolution(12);
analogWrite(12, map(sensorVal, 0, 1023, 0, 4095));
Serial.print(" , 12-bit PWM value : ");
Serial.print(map(sensorVal, 0, 1023, 0, 4095));
// change the PWM resolution to 4 bits
analogWriteResolution(4);
analogWrite(13, map(sensorVal, 0, 1023, 0, 127));
Serial.print(", 4-bit PWM value : ");
Serial.println(map(sensorVal, 0, 1023, 0, 127));
delay(5);
}
Also see: Description of the analog input pins , analogWrite( ) , analogRead( ) , map( )
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tone( )
Generates a square wave of the specified frequency (and 50% duty cycle) on a pin. A duration can be specified, otherwise the wave continues until a call to noTone( ). The pin can be connected to a piezo buzzer or other speaker to play tones. Only one tone can be generated at a time. If a tone is already playing on a different pin, the call to tone( ) will have no effect. If the tone is playing on the same pin, the call will set its frequency. Use of the tone( ) function will interfere with PWM output on pins 3 and 11 (on boards other than the Mega). It is not possible to generate tones lower than 31Hz. For technical details, see Brett Hagman's notes.
NOTE: if you want to play different pitches on multiple pins, you need to call noTone( ) on one pin before calling tone( ) on the next pin.

tone(pin, frequency)
tone(pin, frequency, duration)
pin: the pin on which to generate the tone
frequency: the frequency of the tone in hertz - unsigned int
duration: the duration of the tone in milliseconds (optional) - unsigned long
Returns: None.
Also see: noTone( ) , analogWrite( ) , Tutorial:Tone , Tutorial:Pitch follower , Tutorial:Simple Keyboard , Tutorial: multiple ones , Tutorial: PWM

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noTone( )
Stops the generation of a square wave triggered by tone( ). Has no effect if no tone is being generated.
NOTE: if you want to play different pitches on multiple pins, you need to call noTone( ) on one pin before calling tone( ) on the next pin.

noTone(pin) pin: the pin on which to stop generating the tone
Returns: None
Also see: tone( )

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shiftOut( )
Shifts out a byte of data one bit at a time. Starts from either the most (i.e. the leftmost) or least (rightmost) significant bit. Each bit is written in turn to a data pin, after which a clock pin is pulsed (taken high, then low) to indicate that the bit is available.
Note: if you're interfacing with a device that's clocked by rising edges, you'll need to make sure that the clock pin is low before the call to shiftOut( ), e.g. with a call to digitalWrite(clockPin, LOW). This is a software implementation;
Also see: the SPI library, which provides a hardware implementation that is faster but works only on specific pins.

shiftOut(dataPin, clockPin, bitOrder, value)
dataPin: the pin on which to output each bit (int)
clockPin: the pin to toggle once the dataPin has been set to the correct value (int)
bitOrder: which order to shift out the bits; either MSBFIRST or LSBFIRST.
(Most Significant Bit First, or, Least Significant Bit First)
value: the data to shift out. (byte)
Returns: None.
Note: The dataPin and clockPin must already be configured as outputs by a call to pinMode( ). shiftOut is currently written to output 1 byte (8 bits) so it requires a two step operation to output values larger than 255.
// Do this for MSBFIRST serial
int data = 500;
// shift out highbyte
shiftOut(dataPin, clock, MSBFIRST, (data >> 8));
// shift out lowbyte
shiftOut(dataPin, clock, MSBFIRST, data);

// Or do this for LSBFIRST serial
data = 500;
// shift out lowbyte
shiftOut(dataPin, clock, LSBFIRST, data);
// shift out highbyte
shiftOut(dataPin, clock, LSBFIRST, (data >> 8));

Example:
For accompanying circuit, see the tutorial on controlling a 74HC595 shift register.
//************************************************************** //
// Name : shiftOutCode, Hello World //
// Author : Carlyn Maw,Tom Igoe //
// Date : 25 Oct, 2006 //
// Version : 1.0 //
// Notes : Code for using a 74HC595 Shift Register //
// : to count from 0 to 255 //
//****************************************************************

//Pin connected to ST_CP of 74HC595
int latchPin = 8;
//Pin connected to SH_CP of 74HC595
int clockPin = 12;
// //Pin connected to DS of 74HC595
int dataPin = 11;
void setup( ) {
//set pins to output because they are addressed in the main loop
pinMode(latchPin, OUTPUT);
pinMode(clockPin, OUTPUT);
pinMode(dataPin, OUTPUT);
}

void loop( ) {
//count up routine
for (int j = 0; j < 256; j++) {
//ground latchPin and hold low for as long as you are transmitting
digitalWrite(latchPin, LOW);
shiftOut(dataPin, clockPin, LSBFIRST, j);
//return the latch pin high to signal chip that it
//no longer needs to listen for information
digitalWrite(latchPin, HIGH);
delay(1000);
}
}
Also see: shiftIn( ) , SPI

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shiftIn( )
Shifts in a byte of data one bit at a time. Starts from either the most (i.e. the leftmost) or least (rightmost) significant bit. For each bit, the clock pin is pulled high, the next bit is read from the data line, and then the clock pin is taken low. If you're interfacing with a device that's clocked by rising edges, you'll need to make sure that the clock pin is low before the first call to shiftIn( ), e.g. with a call to digitalWrite(clockPin, LOW). Note: this is a software implementation; Arduino also provides an SPI library that uses the hardware implementation, which is faster but only works on specific pins.

byte incoming = shiftIn(dataPin, clockPin, bitOrder)
dataPin: the pin on which to input each bit (int)
clockPin: the pin to toggle to signal a read from dataPin
bitOrder: which order to shift in the bits; either MSBFIRST or LSBFIRST.
(Most Significant Bit First, or, Least Significant Bit First)
Returns the value read (byte)
Also see: shiftOut( ) , SPI

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pulseIn( )
Reads a pulse (either HIGH or LOW) on a pin. For example, if value is HIGH, pulseIn( ) waits for the pin to go HIGH, starts timing, then waits for the pin to go LOW and stops timing. Returns the length of the pulse in microseconds. Gives up and returns 0 if no pulse starts within a specified time out. The timing of this function has been determined empirically and will probably show errors in longer pulses. Works on pulses from 10 microseconds to 3 minutes in length.

pulseIn(pin, value)
pulseIn(pin, value, timeout)
pin: the number of the pin on which you want to read the pulse. (int)
value: type of pulse to read: either HIGH or LOW. (int)
timeout (optional): the number of microseconds to wait for the pulse to start; default is one second (unsigned long)
Returns: the length of the pulse (in microseconds) or 0 if no pulse started before the timeout (unsigned long)
Example:
int pin = 7;
unsigned long duration;
void setup( )
{
pinMode(pin, INPUT);
}
void loop( )
{
duration = pulseIn(pin, HIGH);
}
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millis( )
Returns the number of milliseconds since the Arduino board began running the current program. This number will overflow (go back to zero), after approximately 50 days. Returns the Number of milliseconds since the program started (unsigned long)

unsigned long time;
void setup( ){
Serial.begin(9600);
}
void loop( ){
Serial.print("Time: ");
time = millis( );
//prints time since program started
Serial.println(time);
// wait a second so as not to send massive amounts of data
delay(1000);
}
Tip: Note that the parameter for millis is an unsigned long - errors may be generated if a programmer tries to do math with other datatypes such as ints.
Also see: micros( ) , delay( ) , delayMicroseconds( ) , Tutorial: Blink Without Delay

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micros( )
Returns the number of microseconds since the Arduino board began running the current program. This number will overflow (go back to zero), after approximately 70 minutes. On 16 MHz Arduino boards (e.g. Duemilanove and Nano), this function has a resolution of four microseconds (i.e. the value returned is always a multiple of four). On 8 MHz Arduino boards (e.g. the LilyPad), this function has a resolution of eight microseconds. Note: there are 1,000 microseconds in a millisecond and 1,000,000 microseconds in a second. Returns the Number of microseconds since the program started (unsigned long)

unsigned long time;
void setup( ){
Serial.begin(9600);
}
void loop( ){
Serial.print("Time: ");
time = micros( );
//prints time since program started
Serial.println(time);
// wait a second so as not to send massive amounts of data
delay(1000);
}
Also see: millis( ) , delay( ) , delayMicroseconds( )

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delay( )
Pauses the program for the amount of time (in milliseconds) specified as parameter. (There are 1000 milliseconds in a second.)

delay(ms)
ms: the number of milliseconds to pause (unsigned long)
Returns: nothing
int ledPin = 13; // LED connected to digital pin 13
d setup( )
{
pinMode(ledPin, OUTPUT); // sets the digital pin as output
}
void loop( )
{
digitalWrite(ledPin, HIGH); // sets the LED on
delay(1000); // waits for a second
digitalWrite(ledPin, LOW); // sets the LED off
delay(1000); // waits for a second
}
Caveat: While it is easy to create a blinking LED with the delay( ) function, and many sketches use short delays for such tasks as switch debouncing, the use of delay( ) in a sketch has significant drawbacks. No other reading of sensors, mathematical calculations, or pin manipulation can go on during the delay function, so in effect, it brings most other activity to a halt. For alternative approaches to controlling timing see the millis( ) function and the sketch sited below. More knowledgeable programmers usually avoid the use of delay( ) for timing of events longer than 10's of milliseconds unless the Arduino sketch is very simple. Certain things do go on while the delay( ) function is controlling the Atmega chip however, because the delay function does not disable interrupts. Serial communication that appears at the RX pin is recorded, PWM (analogWrite) values and pin states are maintained, and interrupts will work as they should.
Also see: millis( ) , micros( ) , delayMicroseconds( ) , Blink Without Delay example

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delayMicroseconds( )
Pauses the program for the amount of time (in microseconds) specified as parameter. There are a thousand microseconds in a millisecond, and a million microseconds in a second. Currently, the largest value that will produce an accurate delay is 16383. This could change in future Arduino releases. For delays longer than a few thousand microseconds, you should use delay( ) instead.
  delayMicroseconds(us)   us: the number of microseconds to pause (unsigned int) Returns: None

int outPin = 8; // digital pin 8
void setup( )
{
pinMode(outPin, OUTPUT); // sets the digital pin as output
}
void loop( )
{
digitalWrite(outPin, HIGH); // sets the pin on
delayMicroseconds(50); // pauses for 50 microseconds
digitalWrite(outPin, LOW); // sets the pin off
delayMicroseconds(50); // pauses for 50 microseconds
}
configures pin number 8 to work as an output pin. It sends a train of pulses with 100 microseconds period.
Caveats and Known Issues: This function works very accurately in the range 3 microseconds and up. We cannot assure that delayMicroseconds will perform precisely for smaller delay-times. As of Arduino 0018, delayMicroseconds( ) no longer disables interrupts.
Also see: millis( ) , micros( ) , delay( )

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min(x, y)
Calculates the minimum of two numbers.
  x: the first number, any data type
  y: the second number, any data type

Returns the smaller of the two numbers.
  sensVal = min(sensVal, 100); // assigns sensVal to the smaller of sensVal or 100
// ensuring that it never gets above 100.

Note: Perhaps counter-intuitively, max( ) is often used to constrain the lower end of a variable's range, while min( ) is used to constrain the upper end of the range.
Warning:
Because of the way the min( ) function is implemented, avoid using other functions inside the brackets, it may lead to incorrect results!

min(a++, 100); // avoid this - yields incorrect results

a++;
min(a, 100); // use this instead - keep other math outside the function
Also see: max( ) , constrain( )

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max(x, y)
Calculates the maximum of two numbers.
  x: the first number, any data type
  y: the second number, any data type

The larger of the two parameter values.
  sensVal = max(senVal, 20); // assigns sensVal to the larger of sensVal or 20
// (effectively ensuring that it is at least 20)

Note: Perhaps counter-intuitively, max( ) is often used to constrain the lower end of a variable's range, while min( ) is used to constrain the upper end of the range.
Warning:
Because of the way the max( ) function is implemented, avoid using other functions inside the brackets, it may lead to incorrect results!

max(a--, 0); // avoid this - yields incorrect results
a--; // use this instead -
max(a, 0); // keep other math outside the function
Also see: min( ) , constrain( )

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abs(x)
Computes the absolute value of a number.
  x: the number
  x: if x is greater than or equal to 0.
  -x: if x is less than 0.

Warning:
Because of the way the abs( ) function is implemented, avoid using other functions inside the brackets, it may lead to incorrect results!

abs(a++); // avoid this - yields incorrect results
a++; // use this instead -
abs(a); // keep other math outside the function
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constrain(x, a, b)
Constrains a number to be within a range.

x: the number to constrain, all data types
a: the lower end of the range, all data types
b: the upper end of the range, all data types
x: if x is between a and b
a: if x is less than a
b: if x is greater than b
Example:
sensVal = constrain(sensVal, 10, 150); // limits range of sensor values to between 10 and 150
Also see: min( ) , max( )

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map(value, fromLow, fromHigh, toLow, toHigh)
Re-maps a number from one range to another. That is, a value of fromLow would get mapped to toLow, a value of fromHigh to toHigh, values in-between to values in-between, etc. Does not constrain values to within the range, because out-of-range values are sometimes intended and useful. The constrain( ) function may be used either before or after this function, if limits to the ranges are desired. Note that the "lower bounds" of either range may be larger or smaller than the "upper bounds" so the map( ) function may be used to reverse a range of numbers, for example
  y = map(x, 1, 50, 50, 1);
The function also handles negative numbers well, so that this example
  y = map(x, 1, 50, 50, -100);
is also valid and works well.
The map( ) function uses integer math so will not generate fractions, when the math might indicate that it should do so. Fractional remainders are truncated, and are not rounded or averaged. >

value: the number to map
fromLow: the lower bound of the value's current range
fromHigh: the upper bound of the value's current range
toLow: the lower bound of the value's target range
toHigh: the upper bound of the value's target range
Returns the mapped value.
/* Map an analog value to 8 bits (0 to 255) */
void setup( ) {}
void loop( )
{
int val = analogRead(0);
val = map(val, 0, 1023, 0, 255);
analogWrite(9, val);
}
Appendix:
For the mathematically inclined, here's the whole function:
long map(long x, long in_min, long in_max, long out_min, long out_max)
{
return (x - in_min) * (out_max - out_min) / (in_max - in_min) + out_min;
}
Also see: constrain( )

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pow(base, exponent)
Calculates the value of a number raised to a power. Pow( ) can be used to raise a number to a fractional power. This is useful for generating exponential mapping of values or curves.
  base: the number (float)
  exponent: the power to which the base is raised (float)

Returns the result of the exponentiation (double)
Example: See the fscale function in the code library.
Also see: sqrt( ) , float , double

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sq(x)
Calculates the square of a number: the number multiplied by itself.
  x: the number, any data type
Returns: the square of the number.
Also see: pow( ) , sqrt( )

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sqrt(x)
Calculates the square root of a number.
  x: the number, any data type
Returns: double, the number's square root.
Also see: pow( ) , sq( )

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sin(rad)
Calculates the sine of an angle (in radians). The result will be between -1 and 1.
  rad: the angle in radians (float)
Returns the sine of the angle (double)
Also see: cos( ) , tan( ) , float , double

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cos(rad)
Calculates the cos of an angle (in radians). The result will be between -1 and 1.
  rad: the angle in radians (float)
Returns the cos of the angle ("double")
Also see: sin( ) , tan( ) , float , double

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tan(rad)
Calculates the tangent of an angle (in radians). The result will be between negative infinity and infinity.
  rad: the angle in radians (float)
  The tangent of the angle (double)
Also see: sin( ) , cos( ) , float , double

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randomSeed(seed)
randomSeed( ) initializes the pseudo-random number generator, causing it to start at an arbitrary point in its random sequence. This sequence, while very long, and random, is always the same. If it is important for a sequence of values generated by random( ) to differ, on subsequent executions of a sketch, use randomSeed( ) to initialize the random number generator with a fairly random input, such as analogRead( ) on an unconnected pin. Conversely, it can occasionally be useful to use pseudo-random sequences that repeat exactly. This can be accomplished by calling randomSeed( ) with a fixed number, before starting the random sequence.
  long, int - pass a number to generate the seed.
Returns: nothing.

long randNumber;
void setup( ){
Serial.begin(9600);
randomSeed(analogRead(0));
}
void loop( ){
randNumber = random(300);
Serial.println(randNumber);
delay(50);
}
Also see: random

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random( )
The random function generates pseudo-random numbers.

random(max)
random(min, max)
min - lower bound of the random value, inclusive (optional)
max - upper bound of the random value, exclusive

Returns a random number between min and max-1 (long)
Note: If it is important for a sequence of values generated by random( ) to differ, on subsequent executions of a sketch, use randomSeed( ) to initialize the random number generator with a fairly random input, such as analogRead( ) on an unconnected pin. Conversely, it can occasionally be useful to use pseudo-random sequences that repeat exactly. This can be accomplished by calling randomSeed( ) with a fixed number, before starting the random sequence.
long randNumber;
void setup( ){
Serial.begin(9600);
// if analog input pin 0 is unconnected, random analog
// noise will cause the call to randomSeed( ) to generate
// different seed numbers each time the sketch runs.
// randomSeed( ) will then shuffle the random function.
randomSeed(analogRead(0));
}
void loop( ) {
// print a random number from 0 to 299
randNumber = random(300);
Serial.println(randNumber);
// print a random number from 10 to 19
randNumber = random(10, 20);
Serial.println(randNumber);
delay(50);
}
Also see: randomSeed( )

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lowByte( )
Extracts the low-order (rightmost) byte of a variable (e.g. a word).
  lowByte(x)
  x: a value of any type

Returns a byte.
Also see: highByte( ) , word( )

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highByte( )
Extracts the high-order (leftmost) byte of a word (or the second lowest byte of a larger data type).
  highByte(x)
  x: a value of any type

Returns a byte .
Also see: lowByte( ) , word( )

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bitRead( )
Reads a bit of a number.
bitRead(x, n)
  x: the number from which to read
  n: which bit to read, starting at 0 for the least-significant (rightmost) bit

Returns the value of the bit (0 or 1).
Also see: bit( ) , bitWrite( ) , bitSet( ) , bitClear( )

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bitWrite( )
Writes a bit of a numeric variable.


bitWrite(x, n, b)
x: the numeric variable to which to write
n: which bit of the number to write, starting at 0 for the least-significant (rightmost) bit
b: the value to write to the bit (0 or 1)
Returns nothing.
Also see: bit( ) , bitRead( ) , bitSet( ) , bitClear( )

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bitSet( )
Sets (writes a 1 to) a bit of a numeric variable.
  bitSet(x, n)
  x: the numeric variable whose bit to set
  n: which bit to set, starting at 0 for the least-significant (rightmost) bit

Returns nothing.
Also see: bit( ) , bitRead( ) , bitWrite( ) , bitClear( )

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bitClear( )
Clears (writes a 0 to) a bit of a numeric variable.
  bitClear(x, n)
  x: the numeric variable whose bit to clear
  n: which bit to clear, starting at 0 for the least-significant (rightmost) bit

Returns nothing.
Also see: bit( ) , bitRead( ) , bitWrite( ) , bitSet( )

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bit( )
Computes the value of the specified bit (bit 0 is 1, bit 1 is 2, bit 2 is 4, etc.).
  bit(n)
  n: the bit whose value to compute

Returns the value of the bit .
Also see: bitRead( ) , bitWrite( ) , bitSet( ) , bitClear( )

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attachInterrupt( )
Specifies a named Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) to call when an interrupt occurs. Replaces any previous function that was attached to the interrupt. Most Arduino boards have two external interrupts: numbers 0 (on digital pin 2) and 1 (on digital pin 3). The table below shows the available interrupt pins on various boards.
Board:
Uno, Ethernet: int.0=2, int.1=3
Mega2560: int.0=2, int.1=3, int.2=21, int.3=20, int.4=19, int.5=18
Leonardo: int.0-3, int.1-2, int.2=0, int.3=1, int.4=7

Due:
The Arduino Due board has powerful interrupt capabilities that allows you to attach an interrupt function on all available pins. You can directly specify the pin number in attachInterrupt( ).
Note:
Inside the attached function, delay( ) won't work and the value returned by millis( ) will not increment. Serial data received while in the function may be lost. You should declare as volatile any variables that you modify within the attached function. See the section on ISRs below for more information.
Using Interrupts:
Interrupts are useful for making things happen automatically in microcontroller programs, and can help solve timing problems. Good tasks for using an interrupt may include reading a rotary encoder, or monitoring user input. If you wanted to insure that a program always caught the pulses from a rotary encoder, so that it never misses a pulse, it would make it very tricky to write a program to do anything else, because the program would need to constantly poll the sensor lines for the encoder, in order to catch pulses when they occurred. Other sensors have a similar interface dynamic too, such as trying to read a sound sensor that is trying to catch a click, or an infrared slot sensor (photo-interrupter) trying to catch a coin drop. In all of these situations, using an interrupt can free the microcontroller to get some other work done while not missing the input.
About Interrupt Service Routines:
ISRs are special kinds of functions that have some unique limitations most other functions do not have. An ISR cannot have any parameters, and they shouldn't return anything. Generally, an ISR should be as short and fast as possible. If your sketch uses multiple ISRs, only one can run at a time, other interrupts will be ignored (turned off) until the current one is finished. as delay( ) and millis( ) both rely on interrupts, they will not work while an ISR is running. delayMicroseconds( ), which does not rely on interrupts, will work as expected. Typically global variables are used to pass data between an ISR and the main program. To make sure variables used in an ISR are updated correctly, declare them as volatile. For more information on interrupts, see Nick Gammon's notes.

attachInterrupt(interrupt, ISR, mode)
attachInterrupt(pin, ISR, mode) //(Arduino Due only)
interrupt: the number of the interrupt (int)
pin: the pin number (Arduino Due only)
ISR: the ISR to call when the interrupt occurs; this function must take no parameters and return nothing. This function is sometimes referred to as an interrupt service routine.
mode:
Mode defines when the interrupt should be triggered. Four contstants are predefined as valid values:
• LOW to trigger the interrupt whenever the pin is low,
• CHANGE to trigger the interrupt whenever the pin changes value
• RISING to trigger when the pin goes from low to high,
• FALLING for when the pin goes from high to low.
The Due board allows also:
• HIGH to trigger the interrupt whenever the pin is high.
(Arduino Due only)
Returns: none .
Example:

int pin = 13;
volatile int state = LOW;

void setup( )
{
pinMode(pin, OUTPUT);
attachInterrupt(0, blink, CHANGE);
}

void loop( )
{
digitalWrite(pin, state);
}

void blink( )
{
state = !state;
}
Also see: detachInterrupt

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detachInterrupt( )
Turns off the given interrupt.

detachInterrupt(interrupt)
detachInterrupt(pin) (Arduino Due only)
• interrupt: the number of the interrupt to disable (see attachInterrupt( ) for more details).
• pin: the pin number of the interrupt to disable (Arduino Due only)
Also see: attachInterrupt( )

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interrupts( )
Re-enables interrupts (after they've been disabled by noInterrupts( )). Interrupts allow certain important tasks to happen in the background and are enabled by default. Some functions will not work while interrupts are disabled, and incoming communication may be ignored. Interrupts can slightly disrupt the timing of code, however, and may be disabled for particularly critical sections of code.

void setup( ) {}
void loop( )
{
noInterrupts( );
// critical, time-sensitive code here
interrupts( );
// other code here
}
Also see: noInterrupts( ) , attachInterrupt( ) , detachInterrupt( )

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noInterrupts( )
Disables interrupts (you can re-enable them with interrupts( )). Interrupts allow certain important tasks to happen in the background and are enabled by default. Some functions will not work while interrupts are disabled, and incoming communication may be ignored. Interrupts can slightly disrupt the timing of code, however, and may be disabled for particularly critical sections of code.

void setup( ) {}
void loop( )
{
noInterrupts( );
// critical, time-sensitive code here
interrupts( );
// other code here
}
Also see: interrupts( )

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Serial
Used for communication between the Arduino board and a computer or other devices. All Arduino boards have at least one serial port (also known as a UART or USART): Serial. It communicates on digital pins 0 (RX) and 1 (TX) as well as with the computer via USB. Thus, if you use these functions, you cannot also use pins 0 and 1 for digital input or output. You can use the Arduino environment's built-in serial monitor to communicate with an Arduino board. Click the serial monitor button in the toolbar and select the same baud rate used in the call to begin( ).
The Arduino Mega has three additional serial ports: Serial1 on pins 19 (RX) and 18 (TX), Serial2 on pins 17 (RX) and 16 (TX), Serial3 on pins 15 (RX) and 14 (TX). To use these pins to communicate with your personal computer, you will need an additional USB-to-serial adaptor, as they are not connected to the Mega's USB-to-serial adaptor. To use them to communicate with an external TTL serial device, connect the TX pin to your device's RX pin, the RX to your device's TX pin, and the ground of your Mega to your device's ground. (Don't connect these pins directly to an RS232 serial port; they operate at +/- 12V and can damage your Arduino board.)
The Arduino Due has three additional 3.3V TTL serial ports: Serial1 on pins 19 (RX) and 18 (TX); Serial2 on pins 17 (RX) and 16 (TX), Serial3 on pins 15 (RX) and 14 (TX). Pins 0 and 1 are also connected to the corresponding pins of the ATmega16U2 USB-to-TTL Serial chip, which is connected to the USB debug port. Additionally, there is a native USB-serial port on the SAM3X chip, SerialUSB,/i>.
The Arduino Leonardo board uses Serial1 to communicate via TTL (5V) serial on pins 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). Serial is reserved for USB CDC communication. For more information, refer to the Leonardo getting started page and hardware page.
Functions:

if (Serial): available( ) , begin( ) , end( ) , find( ) , findUntil( ) , flush( ) , parseFloat( ) , parseInt( ) , peek( ) , print( ) , println( ) , read( ) , readBytes( ) , readBytesUntil( ) , setTimeout( ) , write( ) , serialEvent( )
Examples:
• ReadASCIIString
• ASCII Table
• Dimmer
• Graph
• Physical Pixel
• Virtual Color Mixer
• Serial Call Response
• Serial Call Response ASCII
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Stream
Stream is the base class for character and binary based streams. It is not called directly, but invoked whenever you use a function that relies on it. Stream defines the reading functions in Arduino. When using any core functionality that uses a read( ) or similar method, you can safely assume it calls on the Stream class. For functions like print( ), Stream inherits from the Print class.
Some of the libraries that rely on Stream include :

• Serial
• Wire
• Ethernet Client
• Ethernet Server
• SD
Functions: available( ) , read( ) , flush( ) , find( ) , findUntil( ) , peek( ) , readBytes( ) , readBytesUntil( ) , readString( ) , eadStringUntil( ) , parseInt( ) , parsefloat( ) , setTimeout( )
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Mouse and Keyboard libraries (Leonardo & Due only)
These core libraries allow an Arduino Leonardo, Micro, or Due board to appear as a native Mouse and/or Keyboard to a connected computer.
A word of caution on using the Mouse and Keyboard libraries: if the Mouse or Keyboard library is constantly running, it will be difficult to program your board. Functions such as Mouse.move( ) and Keyboard.print( ) will move your cursor or send keystrokes to a connected computer and should only be called when you are ready to handle them. It is recommended to use a control system to turn this functionality on, like a physical switch or only responding to specific input you can control. When using the Mouse or Keyboard library, it may be best to test your output first using Serial.print( ). This way, you can be sure you know what values are being reported. Refer to the Mouse and Keyboard examples for some ways to handle this.
Mouse:
The mouse functions enable a Leonardo, Micro, or Due to control cursor movement on a connected computer. When updating the cursor position, it is always relative to the cursor's previous location.

• Mouse.begin( )
• Mouse.click( )
• Mouse.end( )
• Mouse.move( )
• Mouse.press( )
• Mouse.release( )
• Mouse.isPressed( )
Keyboard: The keyboard functions enable a Leonardo, Micro, or Due to send keystrokes to an attached computer.
Note: Not every possible ASCII character, particularly the non-printing ones, can be sent with the Keyboard library. The library supports the use of modifier keys. Modifier keys change the behavior of another key when pressed simultaneously. See here for additional information on supported keys and their use.
• Keyboard.begin( )
• Keyboard.end( )
• Keyboard.press( )
• Keyboard.print( )
• Keyboard.println( )
• Keyboard.release( )
• Keyboard.releaseAll( )
• Keyboard.write( )
Examples:
• KeyboardAndMouseControl: Demonstrates the Mouse and Keyboard commands in one program.
• KeyboardMessage: Sends a text string when a button is pressed.
• KeyboardLogout : Logs out the current user with key commands
• KeyboardSerial: Reads a byte from the serial port, and sends back a keystroke.
• KeyboardReprogram : opens a new window in the Arduino IDE and reprograms the board with a simple blink program
• ButtonMouseControl: Control cursor movement with 5 pushbuttons.
• JoystickMouseControl: Controls a computer's cursor movement with a Joystick when a button is pressed.
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(813) 634-6048 (available 24/7)
dbrown28@tampabay.rr.com
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